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   2018| January-March  | Volume 62 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 6, 2018

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Author’s reply for article “nomophobic behaviors among smartphone using medical and engineering students in two colleges of West Bengal”
Pallabi Dasgupta, Sharmistha Bhattacherjee, Samir Dasgupta, Jayanta Kumar Roy, Abhijit Mukherjee, Romy Biswas
January-March 2018, 62(1):70-70
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_407_17  PMID:29512572
  - 590 84
Factors associated with maternal near miss: A study from Kerala
RP Reena, KR Radha
January-March 2018, 62(1):58-60
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_20_16  PMID:29512568
Severe life-threatening situations leading to a “near-miss” event may arise unexpectedly in pregnancy. Delay in seeking help, delayed access to care, and poor quality of emergency obstetric services can lead to undesirable outcomes. Women meeting the WHO “near-miss” criteria were assessed using a cross-sectional study design. These women were interviewed to evaluate the circumstances leading to a near-miss event. Reasons for delays in getting proper care were studied using the “3 delays’ model.” Thirty-two women met the criteria for “near miss” during the 15-month study period, with a maternal near-miss incidence ratio of 9.27/1000 live births. One or more delays were identified in 21 (65.6%) near-miss cases. Delayed access to care was the most important factor for delay. A review of near-miss cases can be used to improve and optimize the existing obstetric services.
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Evaluation of competency and skills of skilled birth attendants in Madhya Pradesh, central India
Surya Bali, Venkatashiva B Reddy
January-March 2018, 62(1):61-64
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_332_16  PMID:29512569
The National Health Mission tracks the proportion of women delivered by skilled birth attendants (SBAs). We assessed SBAs competence in Madhya Pradesh, India, using structured evaluation tools. It is a cross-sectional study conducted from 2014 to 2015. We evaluated 335 trained SBAs using multistage stratified random sampling. Of total, 335 skilled births attendant selected 41.8% were auxiliary nurse midwife, 47.8% were staff nurse, and 10.4% were lady health visitors. Grouping all provider and knowledge test versions, SBAs were correct on 75.4% of the questions. By topic, results ranged from 77.9% correct for the management of normal pregnancy and childbirth to 70.2% correct for intranatal care. The skill evaluation score was 88.1% of infection prevention practices to 74.3% for postnatal care. The present study found significant variations in knowledge and skill competency scores of the SBAs. There is a critical need to improve the training quality of skill birth attendants.
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Consumption of junk foods by school-aged children in rural Himachal Pradesh, India
Aakriti Gupta, Umesh Kapil, Gajendra Singh
January-March 2018, 62(1):65-67
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_343_16  PMID:29512570
There has been an increase in the consumption of junk food (JF) among school-aged children (SAC) possibly leading to obesity and diet-related diseases among them. We do not have evidence on consumption of JF in rural areas; hence, we conducted a study to assess the consumption of JF by SAC in rural, Himachal Pradesh. A total of 425 children in the age group of 12–18 years studying in 30 government schools (clusters) were included. The clusters were selected using population proportionate to size sampling methodology. We found high prevalence (36%) of consumption of JF among SAC during the last 24 h. Efforts should be taken to reduce the consumption of JF by promotion of healthy dietary habits and educating children about the ill effects of JF.
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Congenital rubella syndrome: A brief review of public health perspectives
Ashlesha Kaushik, Sanjay Verma, Praveen Kumar
January-March 2018, 62(1):52-54
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_275_16  PMID:29512566
Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is one of the most devastating congenital infections and yet the only one which is vaccine preventable and is a public health challenge for clinicians and policymakers across the developing world including India. The clinical manifestations of CRS include growth retardation, cardiac defects, cataracts, and hearing impairment. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that worldwide over 100,000 babies are born with CRS every year despite the availability of safe and inexpensive vaccines, thus highlighting the need for broader vaccination coverage programs. This article briefly reviews the importance of CRS, the proposed strategies for prevention by the WHO, and the “Rubella initiative” that Government of India is launching in view of the recognition of CRS as a significant problem in India.
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War against tobacco: Where do we stand?
Indranil Saha, Bobby Paul
January-March 2018, 62(1):55-57
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_166_17  PMID:29512567
India has launched war against tobacco epidemic for the past few decades but with partial success; hence, challenges are still there which need to be identified and addressed for winning the battle. Targeted approach directed at motivating smoking cessation of female smokers, frequent changing of pictorial warnings depicting variety of health consequences in cigarette packets and devoid of logos and colors in conjunction with plain packaging, and display of toll-free number for quitting are expected to dissuade tobacco consumers to quit and save themselves from the devastating health, social, environmental, and economic consequences of tobacco consumption. Online reporting system for violating legal enforcements can also be implemented easily. Moreover, guidance from success stories of countries/states who have achieved smoke-free status along with concerted efforts such as innovative anti-tobacco campaigns, involvement of religious leaders in anti-tobacco propaganda, strict legislations, and overall strong political commitment would further aid in winning the war.
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Tracking India’s Progress in Health Sector after 70 Years of Independence
Sanjay P Zodpey, Preeti H Negandhi
January-March 2018, 62(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_391_17  PMID:29512557
  - 10,155 890
A comment on “nomophobic behaviors among smartphone using medical and engineering students in two colleges of West Bengal” letter by dasgupta et alx. (2017)
Saurav Basu
January-March 2018, 62(1):68-69
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_372_17  PMID:29512571
  - 851 137
Perceived role and its enhancing factors among the village health volunteers regarding malaria control in rural myanmar
P Linn Aung, Tassanee Silawan, Tassanee Rawiworrakul, Myo Min
January-March 2018, 62(1):10-14
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_432_16  PMID:29512559
Background: Village health volunteers (VHVs) are key agents for malaria control in community. The Myanmar Medical Association-Malaria (MMA-Malaria) Project has promoted effective malaria control in endemic and high-risk townships by supporting roles of VHVs. Objectives: To assess the roles of VHVs on malaria control and factors enhancing their roles in rural Myanmar. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in five townships where the MMA-Malaria Project has been implemented. One hundred and fifty VHVs were sampled from five townships by simple random sampling. Data were collected by trained interviewers using structured questionnaires, which covered sociodemographic, supportive, motivational factors, and roles of malaria control. Studied variables were described by proportions, means, and standard deviations and were analyzed for their association by odds ratio with 95% confidence interval and Chi-square tests. Results: Most of VHVs (96%) expected to demonstrate good roles on malaria control, but only 44.0% exhibited current roles at a good level. Factors enhancing their roles were female (P = 0.037), family income ≥50,001 kyat/month (P < 0.015), time serving as a volunteer 1–2 years (P = 0.006), good knowledge of malaria control (P < 0.001), good family support (P < 0.001), good community support (P < 0.001), and good motivational factors (P = 0.002). Conclusion: VHVs are key agents for malaria control in community. Most of VHVs expected to demonstrate good roles on malaria control, but less than half of them exhibited current roles at a good level. The systems and program for improving VHVs’ knowledge, encouraging family and community support, and promoting motivation are essential for their better roles.
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Stigma towards mental illness: A hospital-based cross-sectional study among caregivers in West Bengal
Shrabani Mukherjee, Dipta Kanti Mukhopadhyay
January-March 2018, 62(1):15-20
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_88_17  PMID:29512560
Background: Stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness has a serious impact on the disease outcome and lives of people with mental illness as well as other family members. Objectives: The objectives of this study were (i) To determine the level of self-perceived stigma toward mental illness, (ii) To measure perception to it among caregivers of people with mental illness, and (iii) To identify the factors associated with self-perceived stigma of caregivers. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a structured interview was conducted among 200 caregivers of people with mental illness in the psychiatry outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in West Bengal, India. Stigma and perception regarding mental illness were assessed with a validated 12-item Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue and 20-item perception scale, respectively. Information on their sociodemographic characteristics was also collected. Results: Average stigma score (53.3 ± 13.2) was higher than 50% of maximum attainable score. Caregivers of higher age, female gender, low income, higher education, manual job, rural residence, and those who are single or widowed scored higher in stigma scale. Caregivers with female gender (P = 0.007) and rural residence (P = 0.01) were more likely to have stigma while the perception score was negatively associated (P < 0.001) with stigma score. Conclusion: The study highlighted that health-care providers can play a pivotal role to address caregivers’ stigma in order to alleviate its effect on the course of illness and improve family life.
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Influences of Gender, Religion, Dietary Patterns, and Mixed-sex Education on Aggressiveness in Children: A Sociodemographic Study in Municipal Primary Schools of South Delhi
Khushbu Jain, Schweta Sharma, Samani Chaitanya Prajna, Viney Jain
January-March 2018, 62(1):21-26
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_346_16  PMID:29512561
Background: Increasing antisocial and violent behaviors in adolescents and young adults present serious challenges for public health. Children with persistent high levels of aggressiveness are often associated with developing conduct disorders later in life. Early detection of highly aggressive children and sociodemographic risk-modifying factors are important for developing effective preventive strategies. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to assess levels of aggressiveness for detecting highly aggressive children in sample populations of primary school children in an urban setting and determine significant biosociocultural risk-modifying factors in this scenario. Methods: The study was conducted during August–September, 2015 in 5 primary schools of South Delhi Municipal Corporation. Sociodemographic data on 2080 students were collected. Overall aggressiveness scores (OA-Scores) were estimated using a self-report questionnaire in Hindi. Results: Categorizing students according to their OA-Scores, the data revealed that highly aggressive children constituted 4.3% of the study population. Analysis showed significant influence of (a) gender: boys displayed higher levels of aggressiveness compared to girls; (b) dietary pattern: omnivores showed higher aggressiveness than vegetarians; and (c) school environment: boys in mixed-sex (coeducational) schools displayed lower aggressiveness than from single-sex schools. Statistically significant influences of religion (Hindu/Muslim) and family type (joint/nuclear) on aggressiveness profiles were not noticeable. Conclusions: Vegetarian diets and mixed-sex education act as protective factors in the development of aggressiveness in children, especially among boys. Extending investigations to populations differing in geography and cultural backgrounds are warranted to verify present results.
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Correlation among perceived stress, emotional intelligence, and burnout of resident doctors in a medical college of West Bengal: A mediation analysis
Satabdi Mitra, Aditya Prasad Sarkar, Dibakar Haldar, Asit Baren Saren, Sourav Lo, Gautam Narayan Sarkar
January-March 2018, 62(1):27-31
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_368_16  PMID:29512562
Background: Perceived stress and burnout are by-products of powerless responsibility imposed on resident doctors. Emotional intelligence (EI) works as an adapting and coping tool. Objective: The objective of this study is to find out the role of work-related perceived stress on burnout and influence of EI on it. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2016 among 63 resident doctors of different departments of Bankura Sammilani Medical College and Hospital. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire for background characteristics and work-related variables. Cohen perceived stress scale, Trait EI, and Shirom-Melamed burnout questionnaire were applied for measuring perceived stress, EI, and burnout, respectively. Statistical analysis was done with of SPSS version 22.0, and for mediation analysis, Andrew F. Hyne’s SPSS macro was adopted. Nonparametric bootstrapping was done assuming small sample. Results: Out of complete responses, 67%, 22.9%, and 9.8% were from clinical, paraclinical, and preclinical specialties, respectively. Burnout had a significant positive correlation with perceived stress and in negative correlation with EI-well-being and positive correlation with EI-self-control and sociability. Physical fatigue factor of burnout had a significant positive correlation with EI-emotionality. Perceived stress had a negative correlation with EI-well-being. On mediation analysis, assuming EI as a mediator, total, direct, and indirect effects of perceived stress on burnout were significant (<0.05). Mediation was proved to act with percent mediation of 0.07. Conclusion: There was definite mitigating effect of EI on burnout by perceived stress among resident doctors. This necessitates more attention by decision-makers toward this burning problem for the sake of care of caregivers.
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Spatio-temporal assessment of infant mortality rate in India
Amitha Puranik, VS Binu, Seena Biju, Sonu H Subba
January-March 2018, 62(1):32-38
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_356_16  PMID:29512563
Background: Infant mortality rate (IMR) is globally identified by the policymakers as the marker of health of a population. Objectives: This study aimed to detect the change in hotspots of IMR in Indian states from the year 2000 to 2012, identify hotspots of IMR at district level in selected states from each of the six regions of India and determine the potential predictors of IMR after accounting for spatial autocorrelation. Methods: Ecological study design was used to analyze state and district level data on IMR of India. For the first objective, the data were obtained from Sample Registration System. For the second objective, we classified India into six regions and selected a state in each region that had the highest IMR. The district level data on IMR and potential predictors were obtained from surveys, namely, Annual Health Survey, District Level Household and Facility Survey and Census. Spatio-temporal hotspots of IMR were examined using local indicators of spatial association statistic. Spatial regression was used to identify the potential predictors of IMR after accounting for spatial autocorrelation. Results: Temporal hotspots of IMR were found in the central part of India. Spatial hotspots were identified in districts of Uttar Pradesh. A negative association of IMR existed with female literacy rate, mothers receiving antenatal checkup (%), and people living in urban areas (%). Conclusion: IMR continues to be a problem in the states that have previously shown to be poor performing. Certain districts within these states need emphasis for focused activities.
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Medicosocial characteristics as predictors of school achievements in students with intellectual and developmental disabilities: A follow-up study in ujjain and shajapur districts of Madhya Pradesh, India
Harshal Gupta, Yogesh Sabde
January-March 2018, 62(1):39-46
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_366_16  PMID:29512564
Background: For a long time, there have been arguments about which factors influence the skill development of students with intellectual disability in rehabilitation centers. Objective: The present follow-up study was thus planned to analyze the effect of the demographic variables related to disabled child, his/her parents and the family; their schooling pattern and types of study settings and the associated comorbidities on improvement in the performance score of students attending these study settings in one academic year. Methods: The study was conducted among children (n = 204) with intellectual disability receiving rehabilitation services in centers run by a nongovernmental organization in two districts of Central India. Results: Application of regression analysis concluded that among various hypothesized factors higher birth order, more time spent by parents for child’s development at home, high performing classes, absence of epilepsy, psychiatric comorbidities, and associated physically challenged were significantly associated with improvement in overall mean performance score. Conclusions: The study delineates the need to motivate parents, so that they can involve themselves to develop their child’s full potential. Identification of associated comorbidities is recommended and parents need to be appraised accordingly.
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An epidemiological study on home injuries among children of 0–14 years in South Delhi
N Bhuvaneswari, JG Prasuna, MK Goel, SK Rasania
January-March 2018, 62(1):4-9
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_428_16  PMID:29512558
Background: Injuries are an important public health problem worldwide, accounting for 5 million deaths, of which unintentional injuries account for 0.8 million deaths in children. Though there are many factors responsible for injury in the home, the environment plays an important role. Objectives: The objectives were to study the magnitude and pattern of home injuries in children aged 0–14 years and to assess the environmental risk associated with home injuries. Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 in a ward of Mehrauli containing 20,800 households, and the total sample of children was selected from 400 households by systematic random sampling, with sampling interval being 52. Information was taken using a predesigned, semi-structured, pretested proforma from both the parents and children. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 12. Results: The prevalence of home injury was found to be 39.7% in the last 1 year, significantly higher in the age group of 1–3 years (54.3%) followed by 5–10 years (45.1%) (P = 0.000). The total number of injuries and the average number of injuries in girls were significantly higher than those of boys. The most common type of home injury was falls (59.5%) followed by injury with sharps and burn injury. The environmental risk was assessed using standard and working definitions and found unsafe electrical points (95.3%), unsafe stairs (100%), unsafe kitchen with access to sharps (29.3%), access to active fire (19.3%), and unsafe furniture and objects (22.8%). Conclusion: Though home injury did not occur in 60% of the children during the study period, the risk of injury in the future is high. Educating the parents and the children at schools and environmental modification are important strategies for prevention of home injury.
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The effect of a newly established urban diarrhea treatment facility in Bangladesh: Changing patient characteristics and etiologies
Jui Das, AM Shamsir Ahmed, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Abu Syed Golam FaruqueSyed, Sumon Kumar Das
January-March 2018, 62(1):47-51
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_374_16  PMID:29512565
Background: Mirpur treatment centre (MTC), Dhaka of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, was established as a consequence of an outbreak of diarrheal disease during the summer month of April 2007 in Mirpur area. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of this new facility on patient load, common etiology, and other characteristics of patient population who sought treatment at Dhaka Hospital. Methods: As part of the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System (DDSS), 10% patients (every 10th) seeking care irrespective of age, sex, sociodemographic background, and severity of disease were enrolled at MTC as opposed to 2% (every 50th) at Dhaka Hospital following identical methodology from 2010 to 2013. Moreover, enrolled DDSS patients from 2005 to 2009 at Dhaka Hospital were also included in analysis to further examine the impact of MTC on Dhaka Hospital. Results: Patient load from Mirpur area attending the Dhaka Hospital reduced from 13% during epidemic in 2010 to 6% in 2013 (53% reduction), whereas attendance in MTC increased substantially by 33%. This changing trend was also observed among children <5 years old. A significant reduction of patients presenting with moderately severe disease from Mirpur area at Dhaka Hospital was observed (69% reduction); however, attendance at MTC increased by 26% during same period. Conclusion: The number of patients from Mirpur area in Dhaka Hospital reduced but increased at MTC explaining the need for establishment of a set up for early treatment and control of diarrheal disease when consistent increase in annual number of cases or at the time of upsurge of cases is observed.
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