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   2013| April-June  | Volume 57 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 15, 2013

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Surrogacy and women's right to health in India: Issues and perspective
Anu , Pawan Kumar, Deep Inder, Nandini Sharma
April-June 2013, 57(2):65-70
The human body is a wonderful machine. The future of child birth in the form of test tube babies, surrogate motherhood through new reproductive and cloning technology will introduce undreamt of possibilities in the sexual arena. Surrogacy is a method of assisted reproduction whereby a woman agrees to become pregnant for the purpose of gestating and giving birth to a child for others to raise. In some jurisdictions the possibility of surrogacy has been allowed and the intended parents may be recognized as the legal parents from birth. Commercial surrogacy, or "Womb for rent", is a growing business in India. In our rapidly globalizing world, the growth of reproductive tourism is a fairly recent phenomenon. Surrogacy business is exploiting poor women in country like India already having with an alarmingly high maternal death rate. This paper talks about paternity issues and women's right to health in context of surrogacy. Government must seriously consider enacting a law to regulate surrogacy in India in order to protect and guide couples going in for such an option. Without a foolproof legal framework, patients will invariably be misled and the surrogates exploited.
  33,903 1,964 4
Strengthening of primary health care: Key to deliver inclusive health care
Rajiv Yeravdekar, Vidya Rajiv Yeravdekar, MA Tutakne, Neeta P Bhatia, Murlidhar Tambe
April-June 2013, 57(2):59-64
Inequity and poverty are the root causes of ill health. Access to quality health services on an affordable and equitable basis in many parts of the country remains an unfulfilled aspiration. Disparity in health care is interpreted as compromise in 'Right to Life.' It is imperative to define 'essential health care,' which should be made available to all citizens to facilitate inclusivity in health care. The suggested methods for this include optimal utilization of public resources and increasing public spending on health care. Capacity building through training, especially training of paramedical personnel, is proposed as an essential ingredient, to reduce cost, especially in tertiary care. Another aspect which is considered very important is improvement in delivery system of health care. Increasing the role of 'family physician' in health care delivery system will improve preventive care and reduce cost of tertiary care. These observations underlie the relevance and role of Primary health care as a key to deliver inclusive health care. The advantages of a primary health care model for health service delivery are greater access to needed services; better quality of care; a greater focus on prevention; early management of health problems; and cumulative improvements in health and lower morbidity as a result of primary health care delivery.
  11,864 1,912 4
Sexual behavior among unmarried business process outsourcing employees in Chennai: Gender differences and correlates associated with It
Bimal Charles, Saumya Rastogi, Asirvatham Edwin Sam, Joseph D Williams, Aarthi Kandasamy
April-June 2013, 57(2):84-91
Background: Premarital sex is often associated with high risk sexual behavior such as early age of initiation, multiple partners and inconsistent condom use. Evidence shows that such sexual behavior pre-disposes to sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Objectives: This paper tried to investigate the correlates of premarital sexual behavior among male and female business process outsourcing (BPO) employees to highlight the gender differences that exist in relation to it. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 526 unmarried BPO employees during behavioral surveillance survey in Chennai, in the year 2009. Results: The results showed that about one-third of respondents (males - 39.6%, females - 26.1%) had experienced premarital sex. Men reported having had their first sexual intercourse at 12 years and women at 16 years of age. While the prevalence of premarital sex was found to be high, the percentage using a condom during last sex was also high, especially, among the female employees (82.4%). Logistic regression showed that monthly individual income, work in shifts, migration, peer influence and friends with previous sexual experience were significant predictors of premarital sex among the male BPO employees. Visit to night clubs was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of premarital sex among the female employees. Conclusions: The study concludes that there is a significant gender dimension in the premarital sexual behavior among the BPO employees and that even as the sexual behavior of the young people is transitioning; their ability to negotiate safe sex behavior is also increasing. It is recommended to enhance efforts to advocate safe sex behavior among young adults employed in the BPO industry.
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Impact of a school-based hand washing promotion program on knowledge and hand washing behavior of girl students in a middle school of Delhi
Ankur Garg, Davendra Kumar Taneja, Suresh Kumar Badhan, Gopal Krishan Ingle
April-June 2013, 57(2):109-112
The intervention study was conducted in a school of New Delhi to assess the effect of a school based hand-washing promotion program on knowledge and hand-washing behavior among school children and extent of information sharing with parents. Intervention was carried out on randomly selected 300 students (100 each from 6th class to 8th class) with 281 students being part of the final analysis. Tools of the study were hand-washing questionnaire and household survey performa; essay, poster, slogan writing competition; classroom interactions. Data were analyzed in the SPSS 16.0 software and Mcnemar test and Student paired t-test were used. After the program, 95% felt that hand should be washed frequently. Overall, there was a significant improvement in the knowledge regarding hand-washing and frequency of hand-washing practices after the intervention. 42% children shared this information with their parents. The intervention proved effective in improving awareness and highlights the potential of school for hand-washing promotion activities.
  7,014 1,023 1
Cost of dementia care in India: Delusion or reality?
Girish N Rao, Srikala Bharath
April-June 2013, 57(2):71-77
Context: In 2010, nearly 37 lakh Indians have been estimated to be suffering from dementia. Estimated costs of care in published literature do not reflect the actual expenses of individual households. Hence, a household budget approach was undertaken to arrive at the costs of dementia care in India. Materials and Methods: We identified and listed the different components of care, classified the applicability of care for the different components with respect to mild, moderate, and severe cases. This framework was utilized to assign costs of care and arrive at the household costs of care for a Person with Dementia (PwD) in both urban and rural areas. Results: The total expense was similar to that reported by individual households. The annual household cost of caring for a person with dementia in India, depending on the severity of the disease, ranged between INR 45,600 to INR 2,02,450 in urban areas and INR 20,300 to INR 66,025 in rural areas. Costs increased with increasing severity of the disease process. The costs of informal care contributed to nearly half of the total costs either in rural or urban area. With increasing severity, proportion of medical costs decreased while social cost increased. Medical costs in rural areas were nearly one-third of the total costs as against less than one-fifth in urban areas. Conclusion: The household budget model realistically estimated the household costs of care. It is hoped that the comprehensive and generic framework would prompt health professionals, researchers, and policy makers in India to catalyze geriatric health services, particularly for care for PwD.
  5,818 603 2
Causes of death in rural adult population of North India (2002-2007), using verbal autopsy tool
C Palanivel, Kapil Yadav, Vivek Gupta, Sanjay K Rai, Puneet Misra, Anand Krishnan
April-June 2013, 57(2):78-83
Background: With the on-going epidemiological transition, information on the pattern of mortality is important for health planning. Verbal autopsy (VA) is an established tool to ascertain the cause of death in areas where routine registration systems are incomplete or inaccurate. We estimated cause-specific mortality rates in rural adult population of 28 villages of Ballabgarh in North India using VA. Materials and Methods: During 2002-2007, trained multi-purpose health workers conducted 2294 VA interviews and underlying cause of death was coded by physicians. Proportional mortality (%) was calculated by dividing the number of deaths attributed to a specific cause by the total number of deaths for which a VA was carried out. Findings: 61% of deaths occurred among males and 59% occurred among those aged ≥60 years. The leading causes of death were diseases of the respiratory system (18.7%) and the circulatory system (18.1%). Infectious causes and injuries and other external causes, each accounted for around 15% of total deaths followed by neoplasms (6.8%) and diseases of the digestive system (4%). Among those 45 years of age, more than half of deaths were attributed to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) alone. Accidents and injuries were responsible for one-fourth of deaths in 15-30 years age group. Conclusion: NCDs and injuries are emerging as major causes of death in this region thereby posing newer challenges to public health system.
  5,508 658 6
Predictors of mortality among the neonates transported to referral centre in Delhi, India
Manish Narang, Jaya Shankar Kaushik, Arun Kumar Sharma, M. M. A. Faridi
April-June 2013, 57(2):100-104
A descriptive study was conducted with an objective to determine the predictors of mortality among referred neonates and to ascertain their transport characteristics. A total of 300 consecutive neonates who were transferred to the centre were enrolled in the study. Following information were recorded: maternal details, birth details, interventions before transportation, details of transportation and neonatal condition at arrival. Detailed clinical assessment and management was done as per standard neonatal protocols. Birth weight <1 kg (OR 0.04; 95% CI: 0.006-0.295, P<0.01) and transportation time >1 hour (OR 5.58; 95% CI: 1.41-22.01, P=0.01) were found to be significant predictors for mortality among the transported neonate. Transport characteristics reflect road transport with limited utility of ambulances and lack of trained health personal. Hence to conclude, extreme low birth weight and prolonged transportation time were found to be significant predictors of neonatal mortality among the transported neonate.
  4,293 722 11
Periodontal status among tobacco users in Karnataka, India
Shamaz Mohamed, Chandrashekar Janakiram
April-June 2013, 57(2):105-108
A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the prevalence of periodontal diseases among tobacco and non-tobacco users. A total of 2,156 dentate subjects were selected in the age group of 35-44 years through multi-stage sampling method. A total of 350 and 175 subjects were selected from household survey from each district in rural and urban areas. Subjects were interviewed for the tobacco usage status, followed by clinical assessment of periodontal status. Prevalence of calculus, periodontal pockets of 4-5 mm depth and loss of attachment of 0-3 mm and 4-5 mm was significantly more frequent among current tobacco users. The subject with smoking and chewing tobacco has an odds ratio (OR) 1.6 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.14-2.31) and OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.38-2.28) respectively. The findings contribute to the evidence of smoking as a risk factor for periodontal disease.
  4,331 680 3
Awareness of the association between periodontal disease and pre-term births among general dentists, general medical practitioners and gynecologists
Fouzia Tarannum, Sanchita Prasad, Muzammil , Lalith Vivekananda, D Jayanthi, Mohamed Faizuddin
April-June 2013, 57(2):92-95
In the recent decades, periodontal disease has been identified as a risk factor for pre-term deliveries. Hence, it is important to evaluate the awareness of health-care providers of the association between periodontal diseases and pre-term birth. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to random samples representing general medical practitioners (GMPs), general dental practitioners (GDPs) and Gynecologists for this study. A knowledge score was calculated for correct answers to 11 survey questions related to oral health effects during pregnancy and compared among the three groups. In this study, 133 physicians, 135 dentists and 100 Gynecologists completed the questionnaire. More GDPs (67.4%) than GMPs (56.4%) and Gynecologists (63%) reported there was an association between periodontal disease and pre-term low birth weight. Efforts to increase this awareness may prove valuable in improving preventive care during pregnancy.
  4,084 658 1
Trend of syphilis in a tertiary care hospital, New Delhi: 2001-2009
Abha Sharma, Deepti Rawat, P Bhalla
April-June 2013, 57(2):117-118
  3,296 279 -
Health seeking behavior of the mother for the special care new-born units discharged child: A comparative study
Gursimer Jeet, Atul Sharma, Tulika Goswami Mohanta, Ajay Trakroo
April-June 2013, 57(2):113-116
Establishment of special care new-born units (SCNU) in hospitals not only serves to provide the intensive care to sick neonates, but presents with opportunities to enhance knowledge and modify attitude and practices of their parents through behavior change communication (BCC). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Dibrugarh District, Assam from January to June, 2011 to assess differences in health-care seeking behavior of these mothers from mothers of newborns who were born at home and mothers who had normal uneventful institutional deliveries. Mothers of 29 SCNU discharged, 34 institutions delivered and 26 home delivered children were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule and a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) survey tool. Mothers of children admitted to SCNU scored better in questions related to vaccination, contraception, protection of child from infections and cold and perceptions about traditional healers, but overall KAP scores in the three groups were not found significantly different.
  3,061 470 1
Manpower planning in public health: What do we need to do?
Arun Kumar Sharma
April-June 2013, 57(2):57-58
  2,196 584 -
Assessment of energy expenditure among obese and non-obese children in national capital territory of Delhi
Umesh Kapil, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria
April-June 2013, 57(2):119-121
  1,880 266 2
Perception of personal risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency viral infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome among people attending outpatient clinics in a teaching hospital of Nigeria
PT Adegun, SA Adegoke, OS Solomon, IP Ade-Ojo
April-June 2013, 57(2):96-99
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic is on the increase with the highest burden in sub-Saharan Africa. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 to assess the knowledge, self-perception of risk of contracting HIV infection and risky sexual practices among patients attending some out-patient clinics at the University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. The knowledge on the modes of transmission and methods of prevention of HIV was high. Although, 53.0% of the study participants perceived themselves not to be at risk of contracting HIV infection, 80.6% were engaged in risky sexual practices within a year preceding the study. Significantly more participants with multiple sexual partners, past and present history of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) perceived themselves not to be at risk (P= 0.001, 0.008 and 0.001 respectively). Effective strategies must therefore be developed, to enhance risk-perception since poor risk-perception is known to mitigate behavioral change.
  1,885 237 -
Challenges in neurological practice in primary health-care facilities
Sirshendu Chaudhuri
April-June 2013, 57(2):118-119
  1,024 136 -

April-June 2013, 57(2):77-77
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Author's reply
Sanjay Pandey
April-June 2013, 57(2):119-119
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