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   2011| October-December  | Volume 55 | Issue 4  
    Online since January 30, 2012

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Human development report 2010: Changes in parameters and perspectives
Manju Rahi
October-December 2011, 55(4):272-275
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92404  PMID:22298136
Human Development Report (HDR) 2010 in its 20 th year contains several significant changes. Indicators to measure the three dimensions of Human Development Index (HDI) have been changed: Gender-related Development Index (GDI) and Gender Empowerment Index have been replaced by Gender Inequality Index (GII) and Human Poverty Index has been replaced by Multi-dimensional Poverty Index. Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI) has been introduced for the first time. Between 1980 and 2010, India's HDI rose by 1.6% annually from 0.320 to 0.519. While India's HDI value has improved over time, the rank has not improved as much as compared to other developing countries. On GII, India ranked at 122 with a GII value of 0.748 (ranges between 0 and 1) in 2010 HDR (based on data of 2008), revealing considerable loss in achievements in three dimensions of human development - reproductive health, empowerment, and labor market - due to inequality between genders. Multi-dimensional Poverty Index was 0.296 (2000-2008) and IHDI was 0.365 (2000-2007).
  13,992 630 6
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A study on prevalence of bacteria in the hands of children and their perception on hand washing in two schools of Bangalore and Kolkata
Sandip Kumar Ray, Ritvik Amarchand, Jayanthi Srikanth, Kunal Kanti Majumdar
October-December 2011, 55(4):293-297
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92408  PMID:22298138
Background: Contaminated hands play a major role in fecal-oral transmission of diseases. In 1847, Dr Semmelweis Ignac pointed to the link between infection and unclean hands, and demonstrated that washing hands could reduce transmission of puerperal fever (child birth fever), a dreaded disease with high mortality in those days. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the extent of germs present in hand, and also the students' perception on hand washing. This was assessed by questionnaire as well as by collection of swab from hand and performing bacteriological culture in the laboratory. Results: In regard to students' perception about the dirty areas of the hands, it was observed that majority (78%) felt palm was likely to be more dirty while less than 70% felt that web spaces could harbor dirt. Almost 86% reported that they washed hands before eating lunch, but only 21.3% said they always used soap while 47.3% never used it. Availability of soap all the time in the school was reported by only 18.4% students. The swabs of 61% children showed potential pathogens. The commonest of these was Staphylococcus aureus which was seen in 44% samples. Conclusion: The students' hands were contaminated before taking food. Although they washed hands before meals, they hardly used soap due to non-availability of soap. The school authority should be asked to keep soaps in the toilets for hand washing.
  12,491 1,512 10
PUBLIC HEALTH EDUCATION
Evidence based communication for health promotion: Indian lessons of last decade
K Suresh
October-December 2011, 55(4):276-285
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92405  PMID:22298137
Good health promotion programs which help achieve public health goals are derived from using a mix of epidemiological and social and behavioral science research information. Social data informed by behavioral theories provides a lens of understanding how recommended behaviors are adopted by different individuals within the population over a period of time. In addition to social and epidemiological data, evidence based and scientifically planned and monitored strategic communication interventions have to be linked to available service components of the program. Communication is increasingly understood as an enabler of individual and social level change to achieve established developmental goals including health. Democratization movements and the advent of the internet have changed the environment around any program communication from top-down, expert-to-consumer (vertical) communication towards non-hierarchical, dialogue-based (horizontal) communication, through which the public increasingly questions recommendations of experts and public institutions on the basis of their own, often web based, research. The amount of information available has increased greatly, including scientifically valid data and evidence-based recommendations alongside poor quality data, personal opinions, and misinformation. Evidence-based approaches include engagement with and listening to stakeholders, and being transparent about decision making, and honest and open about uncertainty and risks. Decision and policy makers cannot assume what the public wants without undertaking social science and decision science research. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative and Integrated Disease Surveillance Projects (IDSP) in India haves shown that monitoring of public concerns needs to be continuous and responsive, and hand in hand with the monitoring of technical strategies and appropriate Information Technology support for, not only data transmission but also for videoconferencing and community involvement through toll free 24×7 call service with universal access. This article elucidates the vital role of Health Promotion, a research based communication process, in achieving developmental, particularly health goals. It underscores that communication is as much a science as an art, as much process as it is about outcomes. It advocates for increased linkages between epidemiological research and social science research in planning effective health promotion interventions with quality service delivery.
  10,656 903 5
EDITORIAL
Defining public health
FU Ahmed
October-December 2011, 55(4):241-245
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92397  PMID:22298130
  9,463 965 2
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Nutritional anemia and its epidemiological correlates among women of reproductive age in an urban slum of Bhubaneswar, Orissa
Ansuman Panigrahi, Prasun Bikash Sahoo
October-December 2011, 55(4):317-320
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92415  PMID:22298143
The present cross-sectional study involving 240 women of reproductive age as the study population was carried out in the beneficiary slum area, the field practice area of Community Medicine department to find out the burden of nutritional anemia and study its epidemiological correlates. The prevalence of anemia was found to be 60.8%, of which 39.6, 20.0 and 1.2% women had mild, moderate and severe anemia, respectively. Almost 63, 21.2 and 15.7% of the study subjects had microcytic hypochromic picture, indicative of iron deficiency anemia, normocytic hypochromic picture suggestive of early stage of iron deficiency anemia and dimorphic/ macrocytic hypochromic anemia implying iron deficiency anemia and or folate/vitamin B12 deficiency respectively. Statistical analyses have shown that epidemiological factors like age, education of respondents, socioeconomic status, history of excessive menstrual bleeding and inadequate intake of green leafy vegetables and pulses were found to be significantly associated with anemia.
  8,885 1,200 14
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Health impact of supplying safe drinking water containing fluoride below permissible level on flourosis patients in a fluoride-endemic rural area of West Bengal
Kunal Kanti Majumdar
October-December 2011, 55(4):303-308
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92411  PMID:22298140
Background: The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days) and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. Objective: To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water from supplied domestic filters and community filter with fluoride concentration below the permissible limit. The data obtained were compared with the collected data from the baseline survey. Results: The prevalence of signs of dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis was 66.7%, 4.8-23.8%, and 9.5-38.1%, respectively, among the study population. Withdrawal of source(s) identified for fluoride by providing domestic and community filters supplying safe water led to 9.6% decrease in manifestation of dental fluorosis, 2.4-14.3% decrease in various manifestations of skeletal fluorosis, and 7.1-21.5% decrease in various non-skeletal manifestations within 5 months. Following repeated motivation of participants during visit, there was also 9.7-38.1% decrease in the usage of fluoride containing toothpaste, and 9.8-45.3% and 7.3-11.9% decrease in the consumption of black lemon tea and tobacco, respectively, which are known sources of fluoride ingestion in our body and have an effect on the occurrence of various manifestations of fluorosis following drinking of safe water from domestic and community filters. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis was found among the study population. Withdrawal of source(s) identified for fluoride by supplying domestic and community filters, dietary restriction, and other nutritional interventions led to decrease in manifestation of the three types of fluorosis within 5 months.
  7,431 1,109 38
REVIEW ARTICLES
Typhoid vaccine: A case for inclusion in national program
Pragya Sharma, Davendra K Taneja
October-December 2011, 55(4):267-271
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92403  PMID:22298135
Typhoid has been reported to be a common and significant cause of morbidity in pre-school and school-age children in the endemic countries like India. The incidence of typhoid has been reported to be as high as 27.3 per 1000 person-years in children less than 5 years of age. Serious complications occur in about 10% of cases requiring hospitalization. The mean cost of treatment per episode of blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever has been calculated as INR 3,597 (1996 prices) in an outdoor setting, whereas in case of hospitalization, the cost of illness increases by several folds (INR 18,131). Vi polysaccharide vaccine is safe, efficacious and affordable for use as a cost-effective public health tool to protect children from typhoid and related complications, when given at 2 and 5 years of age as a part of National Immunization Schedule.
  7,881 595 4
SPECIAL ARTICLES
Determinants of utilization of services under MMJSSA scheme in Jharkhand 'Client Perspective': A qualitative study in a low performing state of India
Sanjay K Rai, Rajib Dasgupta, MK Das, Sarita Singh, Reema Devi, NK Arora
October-December 2011, 55(4):252-259
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92400  PMID:22298133
Preventing maternal death associated with pregnancy and child birth is one of the greatest challenges for India. Approximately 55,000 women die in India due to pregnancy- and childbirth- related conditions each year. Increasing the coverage of maternal and newborn interventions is essential if Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4 and 5 are to be reached. With a view to accelerate the reduction in maternal and neonatal mortality through institutional deliveries, Government of India initiated a scheme in 2005 called Janani Suraksha Yojna (JSY) under its National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). In Jharkhand the scheme is called the Mukhya Mantri Janani Shishu Swasthya Abhiyan (MMJSSA). This paper focuses on community perspectives, for indentifying key areas that require improvement for proper implementation of the MMJSSA in Jharkhand. Qualitative research method was used to collect data through in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) in six districts of Jharkhand- Gumla, West Singhbhum, Koderma, Deoghar, Garhwa, and Ranchi. Total 300 IDIs (24 IDIs each from mother given birth at home and institution respectively; two IDIs each with members of Village Health and Sanitation Committees (VHSC) / Rogi Kalyan Samitis (RKS) from each district) and 24 FGDs (four FGDs were conducted from pools of husbands, mothers-in-law and fathers-in-law in each district) were conducted. Although people indicated willingness for institutional deliveries (generally perceived to be safe deliveries), several barriers emerged as critical obstacles. These included poor infrastructure, lack of quality of care, difficulties while availing incentives, corruption in disbursement of incentives, behavior of the healthcare personnel and lack of information about MMJSSA. Poor (and expensive) transport facilities and difficult terrain made geographical access difficult. The level of utilization of maternal healthcare among women in Jharkhand is low. There was an overwhelming demand for energizing sub-centers (including for deliveries) in order to increase access to maternal and child health services. Having second ANMs will go a long way in achieving this end. The MMJSSA scheme will thus have to re-invent itself within the overall framework of the NRHM.
  7,191 965 17
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Provocative poliomyelitis causing postpolio residual paralysis among select communities of two remote villages of North Karnataka in India: A community survey
Amitesh Narayan, Sailakshmi Ganesan, UV Shenoy, E Narayanan
October-December 2011, 55(4):309-312
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92412  PMID:22298141
Intramuscular injections can provoke muscular paralysis especially, if the child has had exposure to polio virus. The purpose of the study was to determine the association with known risk factors for motor disabilities in two remote villages of North Karnataka (India), where an increased number of disabled people among select communities had been reported. A community based survey was conducted. The selection of study subjects was done through screening, history related with occurrence of musculoskeletal disability, screening and general examination of the affected joints and muscles. Data analysis was done by estimation of percentages. Among the physical disabilities identified, the most common was post-polio residual paralysis. 35.65% (n = 41) subjects had developed paralysis following the administration of an intramuscular injection when they had acute viremia in childhood, indicating that (probably) muscle paralysis would have been provoked by intramuscular injections, resulting in provocative poliomyelitis. Unnecessary injection must be avoided in children during acute viremia state and use of oral polio vaccine should be encouraged.
  7,727 271 -
A study on the role of parental involvement in control of nutritional anemia among children of free primary schools in a rural area of West Bengal
Dibakar Haldar, Tutul Chatterjee, Aditya Prasad Sarkar, Sankar Kumar Das, Sarmila Mallik
October-December 2011, 55(4):332-335
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92420  PMID:22298147
An intervention study was conducted among students of three randomly selected free primary schools in rural West Bengal to assess the effect of health-nutrition education for behavior modification of parents on nutritional anemia of children. Clinically anemic students were school-wise randomized into 'groups of two' and intervened with anthelminthic, iron-folic acid (IFA) pediatric tablet and health-nutrition education by reoriented teachers. Parents of study group were involved in behavior change processes. Baseline overall prevalence of anemia was 64.4%. After IFA therapy, prevalence of anemia was not found to differ between two groups (χ2 = 2.68, P > 0.05, RR= 0.48, 95% C.I 0.2 < RR < 1.19) while reducing 52.2% of relative risk. Reassessment after six months showed significantly lower prevalence in study group (χ2 = 18.14, P < 0.05, RR = 0.20, 95% C.I. 0.08 < RR < 0.49). Parental involvement for life style and dietary modification may curb childhood anemia.
  6,683 502 2
DR. J. K. SEHGAL MEMORIAL ORATION
Women's health: Beyond reproductive years
Vibha , Ananya Ray Laskar
October-December 2011, 55(4):247-251
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92399  PMID:22298132
With changing demographic profile India has more older women than men as life expectancy for women is 67.57 as against 65.46 for men. Gender differences in the aging process reflect biological, economic, and social differences. Both social and health needs of the older women are unique and distinctive as they are vulnerable. The social problems revolve around widowhood, dependency, illiteracy and lack of awareness about the policies and programmes from which they can benefit. Among the medical problems, vision (cataract) and degenerative joint disease top the list, followed by neurological problems. Lifestyle diseases form another single-most important group of health problems in the elderly women. The risk of cardiovascular disease doubles with the outcome being poorer than men. The most common causes of death among women above the age of 60 years are stroke, ischemic heart disease and COPD. Hypertensive heart disease and lower respiratory tract infections contribute to mortality in these women. Common malignancies viz. Cervical, breast and uterus in women are specific to them and account for a sizeable morbidity and mortality. In a study done at Lady Hardinge medical college in Delhi, Hypertension (39.6%) and obesity (12-46.8%) were very common in postmenopausal women. Half or more women had high salt and fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake and stress. There is a need to recognize the special health needs of the women beyond the reproductive age, to be met through strengthening and reorienting the public health services at all levels starting from primary health care to secondary till tertiary care level with adequate referral linkages. All policies and programs need to have a gender perspective. At present there is lack of sensitization and appropriate training of the health personnel in dealing with the needs of elderly. Women too need to be aware to adopt healthy lifestyle and seek timely care.
  5,925 794 9
SPECIAL ARTICLES
Assessing Indian public health standards for community health centers: A case study with special reference to essential newborn care services
PR Sodani, Kalpa Sharma
October-December 2011, 55(4):260-266
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92402  PMID:22298134
The main objective of the study is to identify the availability of infrastructure facility, human resources, investigative services, and facility based newborn care services with respect to Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) at community health centers (CHC) of Bharatpur District of Rajasthan State. Data were collected from service providers at CHC through well structured questionnaire at thirteen CHCs situated at Bharatpur District of Rajasthan State. It was found that infrastructure facilities were available in almost all the CHCs, but shortage of manpower especially specialists was observed. Availability of investigative services was found quite satisfactory except ECG. It was also observed that none of the CHCs have fully equipped facility based newborn care services (including newborn corner and newborn care stabilization unit). As per IPHS suggested in the revised draft (2010) important deficiencies were revealed in the studied CHCs of Bharatpur district and by additional inputs such as recruiting staff, improving infrastructure facilities, CHCs can be upgraded.
  5,400 916 4
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Why infants miss vaccination during routine immunization sessions? Study in a rural area of Anand district, Gujarat
Tushar A Patel, Niraj B Pandit
October-December 2011, 55(4):321-323
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92417  PMID:22298144
A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural area of Anand District, Gujarat to measure the efficiency of immunization sessions and to identify the reasons for missing a vaccine in a session. Caregivers of infants aged less than one year and in need of any vaccine as per routine immunization schedule were interviewed by a house-to-house survey after immunization session was completed. Efficiency of immunization session was 66.7%. Reasons for 'missed' vaccination were prior reminder not given (32.9%, P<0.01); mother's forgetfulness (26.6%); unavailability of vaccine (15%). Higher birth order (OR=2.86; 3.16-2.56), mother's current residence at father's home (OR=3.17; 3.53-2.81) were associated with 'missed' vaccination. There are barriers in health care system such as lack of prior reminder and unavailability of vaccines which should be assessed and eliminated.
  5,272 669 14
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Knowledge and skills of primary health care workers trained on integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness: Follow-up assessment 3 years after the training
J Venkatachalam, Dinesh Kumar, Madhu Gupta, Arun Kumar Aggarwal
October-December 2011, 55(4):298-302
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92410  PMID:22298139
Background: The primary health care workers of a district in northern India were trained in the year 2006 for Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) using two different training methods: conventional 8-day training and new interrupted 5-day training. Knowledge and skills may decline over a period of time. Rate of decline may be associated with the type of training. A study was thus conducted to see the retention of knowledge and skills in the two training groups, 3 years after the initial training. Materials and Methods: This study was done in the Panchkula district of Haryana state in northern India. In the year 2006, 50 primary health care workers were given new interrupted 5-day training and another 35 workers were given conventional 8-day training on IMNCI. Knowledge and skills of the same workers were evaluated in the year 2009, using the same methodology and tools as were used in the year 2006. Data analysis was done to see the extent of decline in knowledge and skills in these 3 years and whether decline was more in any particular training group. Results: Compared to post-training score in the year 2006, composite knowledge and skill scores for Auxilliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs) and Anganwari workers (AWWs) together declined significantly in the year 2009 from 74.6 to 58.0 in 8-day training group and from 73.2 to 57.0 in 5-day training group (P < 0.001). Follow-up composite scores in the two training groups were similar. Whereas the decline was more for knowledge scores in 8-day training group and for skill score in 5-day training group, the pattern of decline was inconsistent for different health conditions and among ANMs and AWWs. Conclusion: Long-term retention of knowledge and skills in 5-day group was equivalent to that in 8-day training group. Refresher trainings may boost up the decline in the knowledge and skills.
  4,968 778 14
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
A clinico-epidemiological study of chikungunya outbreak in Maharashtra state, India
Prakash Prabhakarrao Doke, Deorao Satvaji Dakhure, Archana Vasantrao Patil
October-December 2011, 55(4):313-316
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92413  PMID:22298142
The year 2006 witnessed an extensive outbreak of Chikungunya fever in Maharashtra state. Out of 6467 sera of suspected patients sent to National Institute of Virology, Pune, 804 were serologically confirmed. This retrospective study was carried out by interrogating all those patients for their sickness experience. Adult females from rural area were more affected than males. In 68.2% families, there were multiple cases. Fever and multiple joint involvement were almost invariable. In 36.5% patients, there was history of recurrence. Along with pain, slight swelling was noticed in 55% patients. The commonest joints involved were wrist, inter-phalangeal, elbow, knee and ankle, in that order. The pain and swelling persisted for more than a month. After health education during outbreak, there was positive improvement in behavior pertaining to source reduction of vector. Inter-personal communication was best remembered. In health education, the role of paramedical workers and government doctors was prominent.
  4,187 522 7
Pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV seropositives attending a counseling center in Kolkata
Mihir K Bhattacharya, Trailokya N Naik, Mrinmoy Ghosh, Sarojit Jana, Phalguni Dutta
October-December 2011, 55(4):329-331
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92419  PMID:22298146
The study was carried out to detect the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV-seropositive individuals (HIV/TB co-infection) who attended counseling center of National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata. A total of 109 HIV-seropositive individuals were screened. Of them, 36 (33%) had HIV/TB co-infection diagnosed by chest X-ray and presence of acid fast bacillus (AFB) detected by repeated microscopic examination of sputum. Blood samples were examined for CD4 and CD8 counts and ratio. Findings of blood examination showed that low CD4 count (<50/μl) had statistically significant association (P = 0.007) with HIV/TB co-infection as compared to HIV infection only. However, no significant correlation with CD4:CD8 ratio in HIV/TB co-infection was observed.
  3,219 422 4
Study comparing the management decisions by IMNCI algorithm and pediatricians in a teaching hospital for the young infants between 0 to 2 months
Agnihotri Bhattacharyya, Sanjay Kumar Saha, Pramit Ghosh, Chitra Chatterjee, Samir Dasgupta
October-December 2011, 55(4):324-328
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92418  PMID:22298145
Integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness (IMNCI) was already operational in many states of India, but there were very few studies in Indian scenario comparing its validity and reliability with the decisions of pediatricians. The general objective of the study is to compare the IMNCI decisions with the decisions of pediatricians and the specific objectives are to assess the agreement between IMNCI decisions and the decisions of pediatricians, to assess the under diagnosis and over diagnosis in IMNCI algorithm in comparison to the decisions of pediatricians and to assess the significance of multiple presenting symptoms in IMNCI algorithm. The study was conducted among the sick young infants presenting in pediatric department from January to March 2009. The IMNCI decision was compared with pediatrician's decisions by percent agreement, Kappa and weighted Kappa with the aids of SPSS version 10. The overall diagnostic agreement between IMNCI algorithm and pediatrician's decisions was 55.56%, (Kappa 0.32 and weighted Kappa 0.41) with 33.33% over diagnosis, and 11.11% under diagnosis. 71.88% young infants with multiple symptoms and 40% with single symptom were classified as red by IMNCI algorithm, which is statistically significant (P=0.004) whereas 56.25% young infants with multiple and 31.76% with single symptom were considered admissible by pediatricians, which is not statistically significant (P=0.052).
  3,309 314 2
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Perception of accredited social health activists regarding oral health in Northern India
Utkal Mohanty, Hari Parkash
October-December 2011, 55(4):340-341
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92424  PMID:22298151
  2,990 381 2
Evaluation of parasites causing gastro-intestinal tract infestations in HIV/AIDS patients
Santosh A Kotgire, Nilima Tankhiwale, S Tankhiwale, Abhijit De, Debabrata Das
October-December 2011, 55(4):337-338
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92422  PMID:22298149
  2,483 251 3
COMMENTARIES
Telemedicine: A technology in waiting
Arun Kumar Sharma
October-December 2011, 55(4):286-288
  1,930 340 -
MINISTERS ADDRESS
Hon'ble Union Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare - 56th Foundation Day Ceremony of the Indian Public Health Association
Sudip Bandyopadhyay
October-December 2011, 55(4):246-246
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92398  PMID:22298131
  2,037 221 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding anti-tobacco measures among members of Panchayati raj institutions in a rural area of Haryana
Rakesh Kumar, Puneet Misra
October-December 2011, 55(4):339-340
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92423  PMID:22298150
  1,932 299 -
What is the current trend in public private partnership toward the welfare of the disabled in the state of Goa?
Sagar Borker
October-December 2011, 55(4):336-336
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92421  PMID:22298148
  2,025 194 1
COMMENTARIES
Food security bill and the failings of the debate around it
Vikas Bajpai, Anoop Saraya
October-December 2011, 55(4):289-292
  1,926 234 -
OBITUARY
In Memorium: Prof. (Dr.) Ishwar Chandra Tiwari
Satish Kumar
October-December 2011, 55(4):342-342
  1,508 119 -
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