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   2006| April-June  | Volume 50 | Issue 2  
    Online since September 29, 2010

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Linking global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) data to the WHO framework convention on tobacco control: The case for India
Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Srinath K Reddy, Khalilur Rahman, Charles W Warren, Nathan R Jones, Samira Asma
April-June 2006, 50(2):76-89
India ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) on February 27, 2005. The WHO FCTC is the world's first public health treaty that aims to promote and protect public health and reduce the devastating health and economic impacts of tobacco. Post ratification, each member state as part of general obligation has agreed to develop, implement, periodically update and review comprehensive multisectoral national tobacco control strategies, plans and programmes in accordance with this Convention and the protocols to which it is a Party. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) was developed to track tobacco use among young people across countries and the GYTS surveillance system intends to enhance the capacity of countries to design, implement, and evaluate tobacco control and prevention programs. The South-East Asia Region of WHO has developed the "Regional Strategy for Utilization of the GYTS" to meet this need for countries in the Region. In 2003, India has passed its national tobacco control legislation (India Tobacco Control Act [ITCA]), which includes provisions designed to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to second hand smoke. Data in the GYTS (India) report can be used as a baseline measure for future evaluation of the tobacco control programs implemented by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. India has to upscale some provisions of its National Law to accommodate all of the requirements of FCTC. Using determinants measured by GYTS in India, the government can monitor the impact of enforcing various provisions of the ITCA and the progress made in achieving the goals of the WHO FCTC and the Regional Strategies. Effective enforcement of the provisions of ITCA will show in the receding numbers of tobacco use prevalence figures and reduction in the expenditures associated with tobacco use in India.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  526 593 8
Validity of verbal autopsy in determining causes of adult deaths
R Kumar, JS Thakur, BT Rao, M M.C Singh, S P.S Bhatia
April-June 2006, 50(2):90-94
A verbal autopsy (VA) questionnaire, which had an open-ended description of the deceased's illness followed by a series of close-ended questions on specific symptoms and signs, was used by three trained field workers to interview relatives of the deceased who had died in a Chandigarh hospital in previous year. The sensitivity and specificity of the cause of death assigned by physician from the verbal autopsy was calculated against the cause of death derived from the hospital records. Of the 262 verbal autopsies, 60% were males and 23% belonged to rural area. Specificity of VA cause of death was high (>95%) for all broad cause groups except cardiovascular (79%) diseases. Sensitivity was highest for injuries (85%) and it was in the range of 60% to 65% for circulatory diseases, neoplasms, and infectious diseases. Sensitivity was low (20% to 40%) for respiratory, digestive and endocrine diseases. Cause specific proportionate mortality for major cause groups by the VA were statistically similar to the causes of deaths derived from the hospital records (p>0.05). Therefore, VA can be used for determining causes of adult deaths.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  651 349 26
Women with septic abortion: Who, how and why?Aprospective study from tertiary care hospital in India
K Guleria, S Bansal, N Agarwal, V Grover
April-June 2006, 50(2):95-96
A prospective descriptive interview based hospital study was carried on 47 women admitted with septic abortion to evaluate their psychosocial, demographic and clinical profile These women were predominantly parous (75%), hindus (60%), between 20-30 years of age (60%) and mostly married (91.4%) house wives (63.8%). More than 90% already had one or more male child. The contraceptive use was dismally low (23.4%). Their knowledge about legalisation, place and persons authorized to conduct abortions was very less, however large majority (87%) underwent abortions within 3 months of pregnancy. Large family, poverty and spacing were the main reasons cited for abortions. Abdominal pain, fever, genital bleeding, diarhoea and abdominal distension were presenting clinical features in order of frequency. Advanced sepsis and associated medical and surgical complications were present in more than half the patients and 6% succumbed to these problems. The current experience was an eye opener for most of them and changed their future attitude. Hence education, economic prosperity, easy access to reproductive health facilities and institutional management of sepsis is the key to make abortions safe.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  455 373 4
A study of the risk factor profile of cardiovascular diseases in rural punjabi male patients
J Kaur, K Bains
April-June 2006, 50(2):97-100
One hundred rural Punjabi males (40-60 years old) admitted to Hero DMC Heart Institute, Ludhiana with first cardiac attack were studied to identify major determinants of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among this group. The results revealed that 20% and 56% of the subjects were smokers and alcohol takers, respectively. Smoking had a significant (pͳ0.01) correlation with serum LDL-C, triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. 84% had sedentary life style. 36% and 7% of the subjects were overweight and obese. The body mass index was positively and significantly (pͳ0.01) correlated with serum triglycerides. 32% and 20% of the subjects had systolic and diastolic blood pressure above normal. 22% were diagnosed for hyperglycemia. 6% suffered from hypercholesterolemia and 28% had borderline high values of serum cholesterol. 22% and 6% had high triglyceride and LDL-C levels, respectively. The study concluded that the etiology of CVD is multifactorial and no single factor is an absolute cause among the rural Punjabi male patients. Therefore, desirable modification in diet and life style can significantly reduce the risk of CVD among rural males of Punjab.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  460 199 3
Smokeless tobacco use and its implications in WHO South East Asia region
Madhumita Dobe, Dhirendra N Sinha, Khalilur Rahman
April-June 2006, 50(2):70-75
Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  316 329 6
Report of National workshops on National Rural Health Mission

April-June 2006, 50(2):101-128
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  311 93 -
Deciphering the story of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine in prevention of leprosy
Sanjay P Zodpey
April-June 2006, 50(2):67-69
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  184 141 -