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BRIEF RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 200-202  

Usage of aluminum vessels in various types of cooking procedures by subjects aged 60 years and above residing in Urban Vadodara and its correlation with Alzheimer's disease


1 Professor, Department of Foods and Nutrition, Faculty of Family and Community Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Parul Institute of Applied Sciences, Parul University, Vadodara, Gujarat, India

Date of Submission23-Sep-2021
Date of Decision19-Dec-2021
Date of Acceptance22-Dec-2021
Date of Web Publication12-Jul-2022

Correspondence Address:
Arpi Shah
Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Parul Institute of Applied Sciences, Parul University, Vadodara, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijph.ijph_1833_21

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   Abstract 


Aluminum vessels are being used from a long time for various cooking purpose. Using cross-sectional study design, 90 participants, 30 in each category of normal, mild – moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease (AD), aged of 60 years and above were enrolled using SAGE scale. Data on the frequency of usage of aluminum vessel for various types of cooking such as frying, baking, boiling, roasting/sautéing, and packing of food using aluminum foil were collected using the pretested semistructured questionnaire. Results showed that severity of AD was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with usage of aluminum utensils for various cooking purpose in all the three groups, with least total score for usage of aluminum vessels in normal category (3.2) and highest in severe category (18.67). Frying (P < 0.001), boiling (P < 0.05), and roasting/sautéing (P < 0.01) of foods in aluminum vessels was be significantly associated with the AD score. Degree of AD positively correlated with usage of aluminum vessels.

Keywords: Aluminum, Alzheimer's, disease, sage scale


How to cite this article:
Sheth M, Shah A. Usage of aluminum vessels in various types of cooking procedures by subjects aged 60 years and above residing in Urban Vadodara and its correlation with Alzheimer's disease. Indian J Public Health 2022;66:200-2

How to cite this URL:
Sheth M, Shah A. Usage of aluminum vessels in various types of cooking procedures by subjects aged 60 years and above residing in Urban Vadodara and its correlation with Alzheimer's disease. Indian J Public Health [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 13];66:200-2. Available from: https://www.ijph.in/text.asp?2022/66/2/200/350664



Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a type of dementia which causes problems with thinking, memory, and behavior. Symptoms develop slowly and worsen over a time severe enough to interfere with day to day tasks.[1]

According to World Alzheimer's Report 2015, 46.8 million people are living with dementia worldwide.[2]

In a survey conducted in 88 districts of England and Wales, the rates of Alzheimer's were estimated for adults under 70 years of age revealed higher concentration of aluminum in water. The water authorities and water companies suggested that the risk of Alzheimer's was 1–5 times higher in areas with high concentration of aluminium in water.[3]

An 8-year follow-up study conducted in France investigated effect of silica and aluminum in drinking water on the risk of AD and dementia on 3777 participants aged 65 years and above which concluded that relative risk for dementia after adjusting age, gender, educational level, area of residence, and wine consumption was 1.99 for participants who were exposed to aluminum (concentration of 0.1 mg/L).[4]

However, no such documented evidence is available which can show the association between severity of AD and usage of aluminum vessels in India, and hence, the present study was carried out with the following objectives.

The presented study was carried out with the objective of, “to study the effect of usage of aluminum vessels in various types of cooking procedures by participants aged 60 years and above residing in urban Vadodara and its correlation with AD.

Plan of investigation of investigation included three steps:

  • To enroll 90 participants, 30 in each category of normal, mild – moderate AD, and severe AD who voluntarily agree to participate in the study using SAGE scale
  • To study the usage of aluminum vessels for various cooking purpose using a pretested questionnaire
  • Statistical analysis of the data.


Using cross-sectional study design, 90 participants aged 60 years and above with 30 in each category of normal, mild – moderate AD, and severe AD who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study were enrolled using SAGE scale using the exclusion and inclusion criteria. Subjects were selected from free living population and not from any hospitals or community groups. The inclusion criteria were subjects of either sex of age 60 years, knew how to read and write and the exclusion criteria were subjects who had undergone any major surgery within a period of 2 months, those who suffered from any chronic disease (cancer, bronchitis, stroke), did not know how to read and write, and severe depression. The exclusion criteria were on the basis other factors which can lead to AD, and these participants were excluded from the study. Data were collected using the pretested questionnaire. Vadodara was chosen as sample area as it was convenient for the investigator and no such studies had been so far reported in that area, but there have been no specific demographic indices which promoted the use of aluminum vessels in the city.

The medical ethics committee of the foods and nutrition department, The M. S. University of Baroda approved the study proposal and provided the Medical ethics approval number IECHR/2018/1. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants who agreed to participate in the study.

SAGE is a brief self-administered cognitive screening instrument to identify mild cognitive impairment and early dementia. Average time to complete the test is 15 min. The maximum score is 22. A score of 17 and above is considered normal. SAGE Scale consists of various applicatory questions which test the cognitive ability of a person such as orientation, naming, similarities, calculation, memory, three-dimensional construction, clock test, verbal fluency, executive modified trails, and problem-solving ability. Score between 12 and 16 identifies mild – moderate AD and score below 12 identifies severe AD.[5]

Questionnaire to collect the data on usage of aluminum vessels: A pretested questionnaire was developed to collect the data on usage of aluminum vessels for various cooking purpose such as frying, boiling, baking, roasting/sautéing, packing of food in aluminum foil, and the frequency of its use and was pretested.

The obtained data were subjected to the statistical analysis using Microsoft Excel to calculate mean, standard deviation, and paired t-test.

As shown in [Table 1], results showcased that severity of AD was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with usage of aluminium utensils for various cooking purpose in all the three groups, with least total score in normal category (3.2) and highest in severe category (18.67). F test revealed that there was a significant difference in the mean scores of frequency of aluminum vessel used for various types of cooking by the normal, mild – moderate severe AD patients, especially for frying (P < 0.001), boiling (P < 0.05), and roasting/sautéing (P < 0.01) of food in aluminum vessels. The lowest score of normal participants for frying, boiling, and roasting/sautéing was 0.136, 1.07 and 1.00 respectively. Moreover, the highest score on severe AD participants for frying, boiling, and roasting/sautéing was 3.20, 3.63, and 9.83. No significant difference in scores of baking of food and packing food in aluminum foils was seen among the three groups. The reason for that could be that baking is not widely practiced on daily basis in our country and most of the people do not pack food in aluminum foils.
Table 1: Mean scores of frequency of aluminum vessel used for various types of cooking by the normal, mild - moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease participants

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A 10-year follow-up study was conducted to evaluate the link between aluminum concentration in public drinking water and AD. The cutoff point for aluminium present in water to cause Alzheimer's was 100 mug/L. The results concluded that relative risk of Alzheimer's in population who had water rich in aluminum was 2.5 or greater.[6]

A study exposed rats to soluble salts of aluminum (AlCl3) for long durations and checked its influence on mitochondrial respiration activity in the liver, brain, and heart. The results showed that long-term exposure to aluminum resulted in 100% increase in aluminum content in the brain.[7]

A paper article reviewed the epidemiological evidence that linked aluminum to AD. The data suggested that 9 out of 13 published epidemiological studies showed that aluminum in drinking water was positively correlated with the presence of AD. It also showed that aluminum in drinking water may be particularly bioavailable.[8]

A study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of aluminium, magnesium and phosphorus concentration in 5 different brain regions in 3 AD and 3 controls. The results showed that significantly high amount of aluminum and low amounts of magnesium and phosphorus was present in some regions of brains of AD participants as compared to controls.[9]

The study concluded that degree of AD was positively correlated with the frequency of usage of aluminum utensils for various types of cooking procedures.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Alzheimer's Association. Available form: https://www.alz.org. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 21].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Prince M, Wimo A, Gurechet M, Ali GC, Wu YT, Prina M. World Alzheimer's Report 2015: The global impact of Dementia; 2015.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Martyn CN, Barker DJ, Osmond C, Harris EC, Edwardson JA, Lacey RF. Geographical relation between Alzheimer's disease and aluminum in drinking water. Lancet 1989;1:59-62.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Rondeau V, Commenges D, Jacqmin-Gadda H, Dartigues JF. Relation between aluminum concentrations in drinking water and Alzheimer's disease: An 8-year follow-up study. Am J Epidemiol 2000;152:59-66.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Scharre DW, Chang SI, Murden RA, Lamb J, Beversdorf DQ, Kataki M, et al. Self-administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE): A brief cognitive assessment Instrument for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia. Alzheimer's disease Association 2010;24:64-71.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
McLachlan DR, Bergeron C, Smith JE, Boomer D, Rifat SL. Risk for neuropathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease and residual aluminum in municipal drinking water employing weighted residential histories. Neurology 1996;46:401-5.5.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Swegert CV, Dave KR, Katyare SS. Effect of aluminium-induced Alzheimer like condition on oxidative energy metabolism in rat liver, brain and heart mitochondria. Mech Ageing Dev 1999;112:27-42.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Flaten TP. Aluminium as a risk factor in Alzheimer's disease, with emphasis on drinking water. Brain Res Bull 2001;55:187-96.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Andrási E, Páli N, Molnár Z, Kösel S. Brain aluminum, magnesium and phosphorus contents of control and Alzheimer-diseased patients. J Alzheimers Dis 2005;7:273-84.  Back to cited text no. 9
    



 
 
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