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BRIEF RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 64  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 402-404  

Relationship between emotional intelligence, self-esteem, and assertiveness among South Indian youth: A descriptive, cross-sectional study from Karnataka


1 Postgraduate Student, Manipal College of Nursing, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Manipal College of Nursing, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
3 Lecturer, Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Manipal College of Nursing, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission02-Jan-2020
Date of Decision01-Apr-2020
Date of Acceptance01-Aug-2020
Date of Web Publication11-Dec-2020

Correspondence Address:
Renjulal Yesodharan
Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Manipal College of Nursing, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_584_19

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   Abstract 


Youth involves a lot of mental health issues. A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the relationship between emotional intelligence, self-esteem, and assertiveness among 432 youth (18–23 years) from selected colleges of Udupi district, Karnataka using Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and Youth Assertiveness Scale. The mean emotional intelligence among youth was 124.99 ± 18.71, whereas the mean self-esteem and assertiveness scores were 18.48 ± 3.33 and 60.706 ± 7.077, respectively. Linear relationships among the key variables were assessed using the Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. Self-esteem and assertiveness showed a weak positive relationship (r = 0.282 and 0.288, P = 0.001 respectively) with emotional intelligence, whereas the relationship between self-esteem and assertiveness also revealed a positive relationship (r = 0.367, P = 0.001). The significant correlation between these variables indicates a need for regular assessment among the youth. Rising self-esteem and training in assertiveness help the individual to use his emotions wisely and improve emotional intelligence.

Keywords: Assertiveness, emotional intelligence, self-esteem, youth


How to cite this article:
Niyogi J, Yesodharan R, Dsa RJ. Relationship between emotional intelligence, self-esteem, and assertiveness among South Indian youth: A descriptive, cross-sectional study from Karnataka. Indian J Public Health 2020;64:402-4

How to cite this URL:
Niyogi J, Yesodharan R, Dsa RJ. Relationship between emotional intelligence, self-esteem, and assertiveness among South Indian youth: A descriptive, cross-sectional study from Karnataka. Indian J Public Health [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Oct 16];64:402-4. Available from: https://www.ijph.in/text.asp?2020/64/4/402/303105



Youth is a period of life from adolescence to middle age. Some may say that it indicates a period between the end of compulsory education and the beginning of employment. Many of the mental health issues are manifested during this period in which they experience negative emotions,[1] aggression, and low self-esteem which make the youth vulnerable to substance abuse, bullying, and sexual violence, as both the victim and perpetrator. The role of self-esteem is essential not only as an index of mental well-being but also, as a mediator of behavior. Self-esteem also helps in building healthy personal relationships, socialization, and success in life.[2] On the other hand, emotional intelligence can relieve stress positively. It helps to understand, use, and manage one's own emotions and communicate effectively, empathize with others, to overcome challenges and reduce conflict. The individual also needs to have assertiveness, which helps to effectively communicate thoughts, values, and respect the opinions of others. Assertive individuals are clear about their wants, values, thoughts, and boundaries. They express their emotions without being aggressive. Assertive people usually have high self-esteem. The period of youth involves a lot of psychological changes. Hence, a study was conducted to find the relation between emotional intelligence, self-esteem, and assertiveness among the youth.

This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2019 among 432 youth between the age group of 18–23 years chosen from selected colleges of Udupi district, Karnataka, through purposive sampling. The sample size was determined at 95% confidence level using the following formula for single proportion = Z28/2P (1 - P)/d2 where the anticipated prevalence (P) and anticipated margin of error (d) were 50% and 0.05. Demographic and social characteristics of the participants were collected using a pro forma.

The researchers used Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT),[3] a 33 items scale to measure the emotional intelligence using the responses such as 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = neither disagree nor agree, 4 = agree, and 5 = strongly agree. The SSEIT, comprised of four subscales, namely, the perception of emotion, managing own emotions, managing others' emotions, and utilization of emotion. The minimum and maximum possible scores of the tool were 33 and 165, respectively.

Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES),[4] a four-point Likert scale with response options ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree” was used to assess self-esteem. The RSES has ten items where the minimum and maximum score ranges from 0 to 30. High scores indicate that the individual is having high self-esteem. The cut-off score kept for identifying the participants with problematic low self-esteem was 15. The assertiveness was measured using the Youth Assertiveness Scale (YAS) developed by the researchers based on experts' opinion and literature review. The YAS comprised of 18 items which were measured using a five-point Likert scale as 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = uncertain, 4 = agree, and 5 = strongly agree. The YAS scores were classified into three categories 18–41 (less assertive), 42–65 (moderately assertive), and 66–90 (highly assertive).

All data collection instruments are validated to be used in the Indian population by doing a content validity assessment by nine experts in the field of psychiatry and psychology. The internal consistency was checked for the instruments using Cronbach's alpha, and it was found to be highly reliable. The calculated alpha values were 0.83, 0.84, and 0.88 for SSEIT, YAS, and RSES, respectively. Karl Pearson correlation coefficient is used for assessing the relationship between the variables. Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed using EZR software (Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria).

The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Kasturba Hospital and Kasturba Medical College, Manipal (IEC No. 941/2018) on 12th December 2018 and registered in Clinical Trial Registry-India CTRI (CTRI/2019/01/01/7216). The study processes were explained to the participants, and consent forms were obtained 2 days before the data collection.

Out of 432 youth, 403 (93.3%) belonged to the age group of 18–20 years and 246 (56.9%) youth were females. The majority of the youth, 345 (79.9%), belonged to the Hindu religion. All the participants were from three different undergraduate higher educational institutions of the Udupi district, Karnataka. Regarding the occupation of the father; a few of them were working in unorganized sectors such as Beedi making 127 (29.4%), and a few were into businesses 109 (25.2%); meanwhile, the majority of their mothers were homemakers 328 (75.9%). The reported family income of youth (46.8%) was concentrated majorly between ₹10,001 and ₹20,000. Most of the youth reported that their father (44.2%) and mother (37.7%) had only primary school education.

The data regarding the outcome parameters were tested for normality using the Shapiro–Wilk test, and all the data set is found to be normally distributed.

Data analysis showed that the mean emotional intelligence of the youth was 124.99 ± 18.71 with a maximum and minimum obtained scores of 151 and 46, respectively. The domain wise analysis of SSEIT revealed that the “Utilization of emotions” (24.02 ± 4.78) stand high with 80.07 mean percent whereas, domains such as “Managing others emotions” (30.78 ± 5.85), “Managing own emotions” (34.98 ± 6.02) stand with mean percent of 78.92 and 77.73, respectively. The domain “perception of emotions” had a mean of 35.24 ± 5.65 with a mean percent of 73.42.

Overall 73 (16.9%) of the participants had problematic low self-esteem and analysis showed that the participants had a mean self-esteem score of 18.48 ± 3.33 with a maximum and minimum obtained score of 28 and 9, respectively.

Among 432 participants, the mean assertive score was 60.706 ± 7.077. The majority 301 (76.6%) were moderately assertive, 99 (22.9%) highly assertive, and only 2 (0.5%) were less assertive.

Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation was calculated to assess the degree and direction of the relationship between emotional intelligence, self-esteem, and assertiveness.

Based on the correlation coefficient (r) and P value in [Table 1], it is inferred that a weak positive, statistically significant relationship exists between emotional intelligence, self-esteem, and assertiveness. All the three key variables showed a positive relationship which inferred that if one variable rises, it will raise the other and vice versa.
Table 1: Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation and P value calculated between emotional intelligence, self-esteem, and assertiveness

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Researchers recognized that emotional intelligence and assertiveness are an integral part of a person's everyday existence, as these are some of the few essential components of self-esteem. The results of this study showed that there was a weak positive correlation that exists between emotional intelligence, self-esteem, and assertiveness. Nnsbuife et al.[5] in a study in Nigeria among undergraduate medical students showed a significant positive correlation between self-esteem and emotional intelligence (r = 0.237, P = 0.001).[5] Tajpreet and Maheshwari in a study in Faridkot, Punjab, among adolescents in schools showed a positive correlation between emotional intelligence with self-esteem (r = 0.64). A study conducted by Shanmugam and Kathyayini in a selected children's hospital and outpatient department in Bangalore among adolescents reported significant positive correlation between assertiveness and self-esteem (r = 0.64). The result also showed that significant association was found between the assertive scores with the age and education level of the adolescents.[6] All the studies showed that significant relationship exists between emotional intelligence, self-esteem, and assertiveness.

The relationship between the three key variables shows a positive tandem, though, the strength was weak. There can be chances of nonlinear relationships existing between the variables as the correlation between the variables cannot be treated as causation. The scope for the application of the present study is in areas such as schools, colleges, and community. The researchers recommend various measures for the low and moderate emotional intelligent individuals: interventions such as 14-day interpersonal skills program[7] with supportive communication, conflict resolution, and goal setting can be considered. Strategies such as self-reflection, identification of stressors, stress management, mentoring, team building, communication and soft-skill training, and wellness workshops can also be considered for improving the emotional intelligence.[8]

The findings suggested that emotional intelligence, self-esteem, and assertiveness are significantly correlated. The youth should be regularly assessed for their emotional intelligence as it affects self-esteem and assertiveness. Rising self-esteem and training in assertiveness help the individual to use their emotions wisely and improve emotional intelligence.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Perry DG, Hodges EV, Egan SK. Determinants of chronic victimization by peers: A review and new model of family influence. In: Juvonen J, Graham S, editors. Peer Harassment in School: The Plight of the Vulnerable and Victimized. New York: Guilford Press; 2001. p. 73-104. Available from: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2001-00685-003. [Last access?ed on 2019 May 29].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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Tajpreet K, Maheshwari SK. Relationship of emotional intelligence with self esteem among adolescents. Indian J Psychiatr Nurs 2015;10:18-23. [doi: 10.4103/2231-1505.240278].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Schutte NS, Malouff JM, Hall LE, Haggerty DJ, Cooper JT, Golden CJ, et al. Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Pers Individ Dif 1998;25:167-77.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Rosenberg M. Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press; 1965.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Nnsbuife EJ, Chukwuemeka OM, Ikechukwu E. The relationship between self-esteem and emotional intelligence among undergraduate medical students of IMO state university, Owerri, Nigeria. Int J Brain Cogn Sci 2018;7:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Shanmugam V, Kathyayini B V. Assertiveness and self-esteem in Indian adolescents. Galore Int J Health Sci Res 2017;2:8-13.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Murray JP, Jordan PJ, Ashkanasy NM. Emotional intelligence & team performance: Does training matter? In: Proceedings of the 20th ANZAM Conference: “Management: Pragmatism, Philosophy, Priorities.”; 2006. p. 1-22.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Greenberger S, Bahner DP, Way DP. Teaching emotional intelligence: A control group study of a brief educational intervention for emergency medicine residents. West J Emerg Med 2015;16:899-906.  Back to cited text no. 8
    



 
 
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