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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 64  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 102-108

Effectiveness of health education in reducing secondhand smoke exposure among pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic in Saudi Arabia: A randomized controlled trial


1 Chair of Evidence Based Health Care and Knowledge Translation, College of Medicine; Department of Community and Family Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Community and Family Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi, Arabia
3 Department of Clinical, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Department of Biostatistics, Alexandria University, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria, Egypt
4 Chair of Evidence Based Health Care and Knowledge Translation, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Amel A Fayed
Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, P.O. Box 84428, Riyadh

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_63_19

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Background: Pregnant women's exposure to secondhand smoking (SHS) is associated with detrimental effects on the pregnancy outcomes. Objectives: The objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness of face-to-face counseling, based on health belief model (HBM), combined with a written educational pamphlet, and health education using written pamphlet only, in improving pregnant women's perception, behavior to avoid SHS and change in exposure to SHS. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2016. The intervention group received face-to-face health counseling on SHS, while the control group received only written educational pamphlets. Outcomes were the change in the perception of mother on the four constructs of the HBM and the change in mothers' behavior of avoidance of SHS exposure. Results: A total of 100 women were recruited for the study, of whom 93 (47 intervention and 46 control) women completed the study. All women identified their spouse as a source of SHS exposure. Following the intervention, the intervention group had significantly higher scores in the perception of susceptibility (21 ± 4 vs. 16 ± 7, P < 0.01) and severity (15 ± 3 vs. 12 ± 4, P < 0.01) and reduced perception scores of barriers to avoid SHS exposure (11 ± 4 vs. 9 ± 5, P = 0.03), compared to the control group. However, there was an insignificant change in the exposure to SHS after the intervention in both the groups; where 25 (53.2%) women in the intervention group and 31 (67.4%) in the control group (P = 0.16), continued to being exposed to SHS. Conclusion: Counselling of pregnant women, based on HBM, has insignificant effect in reducing their exposure to SHS; however it is effective in improving their knowledge and perception about SHS exposure.


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