Users Online: 3103 Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size


Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 61  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 199-204  

Nomophobic behaviors among smartphone using medical and engineering students in two colleges of West Bengal

1 Medical Officer (Specialist), Department of Community Medicine, Malda Medical College, Siliguri, West Bengal, India
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, North Bengal Medical College and Hospital, Siliguri, West Bengal, India
3 Professor, Department of Community Medicine, North Bengal Medical College and Hospital, Siliguri, West Bengal, India
4 Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine, North Bengal Medical College and Hospital, Siliguri, West Bengal, India

Date of Web Publication15-Sep-2017

Correspondence Address:
Sharmistha Bhattacherjee
Department of Community Medicine, North Bengal Medical College and Hospital, Siliguri - 734 012, West Bengal
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_81_16

Rights and Permissions

Background: Growing smartphone usage among global and Indian college students has resulted in considerable issues of “nomophobia” (NMP) or feelings of discomfort or anxiety experienced by individuals whenever unable to use their smartphones. This significantly impacts their health, work, and study. Objective: The objective of this study is to find out the prevalence of NMP among smartphone using medical and engineering undergraduates of West Bengal and to compare the nomophobic behaviors, its predictors, and smartphone usage among them. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 303 medical and 305 engineering undergraduates in West Bengal using a validated NMP questionnaire consisting of four factors. Comparison of means of individual questions and factor scores was done. Nomophobic clusters among the two groups were identified using two-stage cluster analysis. Binary logistic regression was used for comparison of predictors of NMP. Results: Engineering students showed a higher proportion of nomophobics (44.6%) than medical students (42.6%). Significant higher means was observed among engineering students for the factor “giving upconvenience” and individual variables like “scared due to running out of battery,” “nervous due to disconnection from online identity,” “uncomfortable when unable stay up-to-date with social media” and “anxious when unable to check E-mails.” A Higher proportion of nomophobics among both groups were females, those owning smartphone beyond 2 years, having monthly mobile bill above Rs. 200 and spending over 4 h daily on smartphone. Conclusion: NMP has emerged as a significant cause of concern among both the groups. Standardized measures for identification and appropriate psychobehavioral therapy for those seeking help might alleviate the problem.

Keywords: Engineering students, medical students, nomophobia, smartphone

How to cite this article:
Dasgupta P, Bhattacherjee S, Dasgupta S, Roy JK, Mukherjee A, Biswas R. Nomophobic behaviors among smartphone using medical and engineering students in two colleges of West Bengal. Indian J Public Health 2017;61:199-204

How to cite this URL:
Dasgupta P, Bhattacherjee S, Dasgupta S, Roy JK, Mukherjee A, Biswas R. Nomophobic behaviors among smartphone using medical and engineering students in two colleges of West Bengal. Indian J Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2023 Jan 30];61:199-204. Available from:

   Introduction Top

With significant technological improvements and decreasing cost of smartphones, mobile dependence [1],[2] worldwide is rising.[1],[2],[3] A billion smartphones were in use globally in third quarter of 2012.[4] In urban India, there were around “51 million” smartphone users in 2013; increase over 90% since 2012.[5] Addiction to smartphones is now a well-known phenomenon. A new disorder termed nomophobia (NMP)[6] (a portmanteau for “no mobile phone” and phobia) or mobile phone addiction [7],[8],[9],[10],[11] has garnered attention from researchers.[6],[12],[13] NMP is a disorder of contemporary digital and virtual society and refers to discomfort, anxiety, nervousness, or anguish caused by being out of contact with a mobile phone.[14] It has been proposed to be included in the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders V.[14]

A study in the United Kingdom [15] among mobile users in 2008 revealed that 53% of users suffered from NMP. Cheever et al.[16] have shown that problems associated with mobile phone use are common among youth, who were early adopters of mobile technologies. Sharma et al.[17] reported that 75% of the participant medical students had NMP and 83% experienced panic attacks when unable to access their mobiles. Similar studies among medical students have been conducted in Indore [18] and Bengaluru.[19]

A majority of college and university students from varied socioeconomic background in India are touched by the effects of widely available smartphones. Medical and engineering students, considered cream among other general students, have more or less similar acumen. Due to difference in nature of their study, we can expect differences in their smartphone usage and hence nomophobic behaviors. The medical syllabus is usually vaster while engineering syllabus is more technology oriented. Little published research is there comparing nomophobic behavior among these students in this part of India.

The present study was done with the objectives of finding out the prevalence of NMP among smartphone using medical and engineering undergraduates of West Bengal and to compare the nomophobic behaviors, its predictors, and smartphone usage among them.

   Materials and Methods Top

An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted from November to December 2015 in North Bengal Medical College (NBMC) and Jalpaiguri Government Engineering College (JGEC)[20] of West Bengal.

NBMC, located in Siliguri, Darjeeling [21] is the largest government healthcare facility in North Bengal region serving as a tertiary referral institute and provides graduation and postgraduation courses. JGEC [20] is a premier government technical institute situated at the outskirts of Jalpaiguri, divisional headquarter of seven districts of Bengal. The college offers bachelor's degrees in six branches and master's degrees in two branches of engineering.

Study participants were undergraduate students. They were selected by systematic random sampling from total number of enrolled students in each college to get two independent samples. Unwilling students and those not owning smartphone were excluded from the study.

Owing to scarcity of comparative studies showing NMP among medical and engineering undergraduates, a pilot study was conducted among a convenient sample of thirty students in each college to obtain the lowest mean and standard deviation among the four factors of NMP for each group of students. Adequate sample size in each group was calculated to be 306, considering a 95% confidence level, power 80%, mean difference 0.36, standard deviation as 1.24 and 1.21 in two groups, design effect of 1.5, and 10% nonresponse error.

A self-reported English questionnaire comprising background characteristics of participants, smartphone usage, and nomophobia questionnaire (NMP-Q)[3] was used. The NMP-Q is a validated questionnaire, specifically developed by Yildirim and Correia [3] in 2015, to measure the nomophobic behaviors of college students. It consists of twenty items addressing four factors of NMP: (1) Not being able to communicate, (2) losing connectedness, (3) not being able to access information, and (4) giving up convenience. All items are rated using 7-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree).[3]

Data were collected following approval by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Permission from respective college authorities and student committees were obtained. The students were approached personally with the help of student unions, class representatives, hostel superintendents, and monitors. Written informed consent was taken from each participant after explaining the nature and purpose of study. The participants were asked to fill up the questionnaire at their earliest convenient time and encouraged to submit completed questionnaires. Subsequent queries regarding the questionnaire were clarified by the researchers over the telephone. The filled up questionnaires were collected by the researchers at a prespecified time from the participants at their respective colleges. During collection, the questionnaires were cross-checked for completeness.

Statistical analysis

The average scores of items loading to factors of NMP-Q were computed to construct factor scores for each student. The responses were summarized with means and standard deviations to explore their nomophobic behaviors. Comparison of means of individual questions as well as factor scores was done between medical and engineering students using t-test.

A two-stage cluster analysis was performed among the two samples independently to identify groups of medical and engineering students who were homogenous within themselves, but heterogeneous with each other, regarding their nomophobic behaviors. The presence of outliers, collinearity among variables, and adequacy of sample size was examined. Preliminary analyses showed that there was no violation of assumptions which might cause a poor representation of the clusters. Using log-likelihood distance measure, a two-cluster solution was retained. Individual items of NMP-Q were used in cluster analysis. Cluster of students with higher mean scores was labeled as “nomophobic” and other as “non-nomophobic.”

Binary logistic regression was used for comparison of predictors of NMP among two groups of students. Dependent variables were “nomophobic” or “non-nomophobic,” dichotomous in nature, where “nomophobic” = 1; “non-nomophobic” = 0. Background predictors were age, gender, current place of stay, year in study. Smartphone ownership/usage related predictors were duration of smartphone ownership, price of latest smartphone, having mobile internet, average monthly mobile bill including internet usage, number of newer apps installed in the previous month, and ownership of other gadgets. IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, Armonk, NY: IBM Corp) version 20 was used in all the analysis. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

   Results Top

Three hundred and six selected students were approached in each college. Three medical students and one engineering student were unwilling - so excluded from the study. A total of 303 medical and 305 engineering students completed the questionnaire. There were no incomplete forms.

Mean age of medical students (21.33 ± 2.36) was higher than that of engineering students (19.44 ± 1.44). Among medical students, 194 (64%) were male, 289 (95.4%) stayed in hostel. Among engineering students, 253 (83%) were male, 259 (84.9%) stayed in hostel. Majority studied in 3rd year or above (173 [57.1%]) among medical students and 1st/2nd year (227 [74.4%]) among engineering students [Table 1]. Number of medical students owning more than one smartphones were 85 (28.1%), and engineering students were 54 (17.7%). The proportion of engineering students checking their mobile frequently, i.e. every 5 min to every hour (235 [77%]) were slightly more than medical students (222 [73.3%]). In addition, mean number of times checking the phone daily were more in engineering students [Table 2].
Table 1: Prevalence and predictors of nomophobia among medical and engineering students

Click here to view
Table 2: Comparison of smartphone usage-related variables of the medical and engineering students

Click here to view

Comparing factors of nomophobia

Considering four factors of NMP, engineering students showed higher mean scores in all except factor-1 “not being able to communicate.” Significant higher means were observed among engineering students for factor-4 “giving up convenience.” The overall highest mean was observed among both groups relating to the factor of “not being able to access information.”

Significant higher means were found in engineering students regarding Q5 (scared due to running out of battery), Q16 (nervous due to disconnection from online identity), and highly significant (P< 0.001) in case of Q17 (uncomfortable because could not stay up-to-date with social media), and Q19 (anxious because could not check E-mail) [Table 3].
Table 3: Factors of nomophobia questionnaire and mean scores among medical and engineering students

Click here to view

Cluster analysis among medical and engineering students

Engineering students showed a slightly higher proportion of NMP (136 [44.6%]) than medical students (129 (42.6)). Most important predictor for both the clusters were Q15, i.e. “anxious because connection to family/friends would be broken” and the variables mainly related to “not being able to access information” (item 14 >12 >13 >10 for engineering; item13 >10 >11 >12 >for medical). The quality of clusters was fair (average silhouette = 0.03).

Predictors of nomophobia

Aged below 21 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.321 [0.637–2.740]), staying in hostel, greater duration of smartphone ownership, higher price of latest smartphone, monthly mobile bill over Rs. 200, not owning any other gadgets (AOR = 1.064 [0.645–1.756]), spending over 4 h with smartphone had higher odds of having NMP among medical students. Among medical college students, females, and those studying in 3rd year and above were significantly associated with NMP.

In case of engineering students, age below 21 years (AOR = 1.188 [0.563,2.507]), females, being in 1st and 2nd year (AOR = 1.242 [0.584, 2.640]), staying in home or other places (AOR = 1.287 [0.634, 2.611]), owning smartphone more than 2 years, lesser price of smartphone (AOR = 1.290 [0.733, 2.270]), having mobile internet data, greater monthly mobile bill, not owning any other gadgets (AOR = 1.127 [0.664–1.914]) had higher likelihood of NMP. Spending over 4 h daily using smartphone had a significant effect on nomophobic behavior [Table 1].

Smartphone usage

Median number of calls, messages, and E-mails sent or received is almost similar into two groups [Table 2]. Majority of students in both groups used their smartphones for talking and texting (medical - 89.1%; engineering - 92.5%) followed by gaming, music or for killing time (medical - 86.8%; engineering - 90.2%) and checking mail or social media (medical - 81.2%; engineering - 84.6%). A majority of both medical and engineering students use their smartphones when alone/in the restroom (medical - 95.7%; engineering - 92.5%), or while waiting for something or walking (medical - 69.6%; engineering - 70.5%) [Table 4].
Table 4: Comparison of purpose and context of smartphone usage among medical and engineering students

Click here to view

   Discussion Top

NMP is a relatively newer concept. NMP has different characteristics such as spending considerable time on mobiles, having more than one devices, always carrying a charger, feeling anxious at the thought of losing handset or when it is not available nearby, or during lack of network coverage. Nomophobics tend to keep their phone always switched on,[18] sleep with mobiles with a habit to look at the screen frequently to the point of hearing “false mobile sounds” or ringxiety.[14],[22],[23]

A wide variety of prevalence of nomophobics has been revealed among students in India ranging from 18.5% among medical students in Indore by Dixit et al.[18] 75% by Sharma et al.[17] This might be due to different tools used or lack of standardized measures to assess nomophobics.

Yildirim et al.[24] in Turkey found students having greater fear of “not being able to access information.” Probably due to higher smartphone usage of engineering students with respect to social media, E-mails, etc., they showed greater fear of “giving up convenience.”

The previous findings by Yildirim et al.,[24] Sharma et al.[17] support the present findings of females having higher proportion of NMP. Deursen et al.[25] found males experiencing less social stress and using smartphones less for social purposes. Bianchi and Phillips [26] suggested that females use mobile for social reasons while males for technology and work. Hence, women have higher chance of developing more addictive smartphone behavior. Male students in both the colleges here tend to spend more time in outdoor activities.

Dixit et al.[18] found nomophobics were maximum from third professional MBBS students similar to present finding. However, junior engineering students showed higher odds of NMP probably due to higher proportion of nomophobics staying in hostel and utilizing smartphone in talking or texting family. Another reason might be overall higher representation of 1st/2nd year engineering students.

Higher age negatively affects social stress and social usage and increases self-regulation.[25] Ample evidence for the effect of age on problematic mobile phone use behaviors, with younger individuals being more likely to exhibit such behaviors, have been generated by previous studies globally.[27],[28],[29],[30],[31]

Dixit et al.[18] and Pavithra et al.[19] found no significant association of mobile phone dependence (MPD) with place of stay. Yildirim et al.[24] in their study found duration of smartphone ownership was positively related to of NMP. Pavithra et al.[19] in Bengaluru study, Sahin et al.[32] in Pakistan also showed higher daily usage of mobiles related to NMP and mobile phone addiction. Availability of newer smartphones with multitasking features has led to increased time spending with smartphones. A study by Nikhita et al.[2] among secondary school adolescents shows participants with MPD were significantly associated with increasing amount of time spent on mobile and more than 3 years of use.

Those who did not own other gadgets were more likely to use their smartphones for diverse purposes such as taking photos or recording videos, checking lecture notes, blogging, reading e-books, and even preparing project proposals as revealed by few. Availability of mobile internet plan did not significantly affect NMP since students could avail shared Wi-Fi connection at their college.

Texting and calling were reported the major use of smartphone in studies by Pavithra et al.,[19] Sahin et al.,[32] etc., The pattern of usage such as frequency of checking, average number of times of checking mobiles was in similar lines of the previous studies in India.[2],[18],[19],[33]

   Conclusion Top

NMP has emerged as a noteworthy problem among both the groups despite slightly higher proportion of nomophobics among engineering students. The present study, however, did not assess socioeconomic status, pocket money of students, which might influence nomophobic behaviors. Multicenter studies among diverse students would bring out a clearer picture.

Smartphones as a self-learning tool providing sleek connectivity are essential. Their benefits lead to overuse resulting in addiction or NMP. Increased awareness generation is needed among the youth regarding NMP. Standardized measures for identification and appropriate psychobehavioral therapy for those seeking help might alleviate the problem.


The authors acknowledge the support received from the Principal, North Bengal Medical College and Hospital and the Principal, Jalpaiguri Government Engineering College of West Bengal, India.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

   References Top

Arif I, Aslam W. Students' dependence on smart phone and its effect on purchase behavior. Germany: University Library of Munich; 2014.  Back to cited text no. 1
Nikhita CS, Jadhav PR, Ajinkya SA. Prevalence of mobile phone dependence in secondary school adolescents. J Clin Diagn Res 2015;9:VC06-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
Yildirim C, Correia AP. Exploring the dimensions of nomophobia: Development and validation of a self-reported questionnaire. Comput Hum Behav 2015;49:130-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
Reisinger D. Worldwide Smartphone User Base Hits 1 Billion. CNet. CBS Interactive, Inc.; 17 October 2012. Available from: [Last accessed on 2016 Jan 19].  Back to cited text no. 4
Smartphone Users around the World – Statistics and Facts. Available from: [Last accessed on 2016 Jan 19].  Back to cited text no. 5
King AL, Valença AM, Nardi AE. Nomophobia: The mobile phone in panic disorder with agoraphobia: Reducing phobias or worsening of dependence? Cogn Behav Neurol 2010;23:52-4.  Back to cited text no. 6
Worldwide Market Share for Smartphones. Available from: [Last accessed on 2016 Jan 19].  Back to cited text no. 7
Kuss DJ, Griffiths MD. Online social networking and addiction – A review of the psychological literature. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2011;8:3528-52.  Back to cited text no. 8
Chóliz M. Mobile phone addiction: A point of issue. Addiction 2010;105:373-4.  Back to cited text no. 9
Potenza MN. Should addictive disorders include non-substance-related conditions? Addiction 2006;101 Suppl 1:142-51.  Back to cited text no. 10
Griffiths MD. Technological addictions. Clin Psychol Forum 1995;76:14-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
King AL, Valença AM, Silva AC, Sancassiani F, Machado S, Nardi AE. “Nomophobia”: Impact of cell phone use interfering with symptoms and emotions of individuals with panic disorder compared with a control group. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health 2014;10:28-35.  Back to cited text no. 12
King AL, Valença AM, Silva AC. Nomophobia: Dependency on virtual environments or social phobia? Comput Hum Behav 2013;29:140-4.  Back to cited text no. 13
Bragazzi NL, Del Puente G. A proposal for including nomophobia in the new DSM-V. Psychol Res Behav Manag 2014;7:155-60.  Back to cited text no. 14
Mail Online. Nomophobia is the Fear of Being out of Mobile Phone Contact – And it's the Plague of Our 24/7 Age. 2008. Available from:– plague-24-7-age.html. [Last accessed on 2016 Jan 19].  Back to cited text no. 15
Cheever NA, Rosen LD, Carrier LM. Out of sight is not out of mind: The impact of restricting wireless mobile device use on anxiety levels among low, moderate and high users. Comput Hum Behav 2014;37:290-7.  Back to cited text no. 16
Sharma N, Sharma P, Sharma N. Rising concern of nomophobia amongst Indian medical students. Int J Res Med Sci 2015;3:705-7.  Back to cited text no. 17
Dixit S, Shukla H, Bhagwat A, Bindal A, Goyal A, Zaidi AK, et al. Astudy to evaluate mobile phone dependence among students of a medical college and associated hospital of central India. Indian J Community Med 2010;35:339-41.  Back to cited text no. 18
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Pavithra MB, Suwarna M, Mahadeva Murthy TS. A study on nomophobia – mobile phone dependence, among students of a medical college in Bangalore. Natl J Community Med 2015;6:340-4.  Back to cited text no. 19
Jalpaiguri Government Engineering College. Welcome to the Official Website of Jalpaiguri Government Engineering College. Available from: [Last accessed on 2016 Jan 19].  Back to cited text no. 20
North Bengal Medical College and Hospital. Available from: [Last accessed on 2016 Jan 19].  Back to cited text no. 21
Szyjkowska A, Bortkiewicz A, Szymczak W, Makowiec-Dabrowska T. Subjective symptoms related to mobile phone use – A pilot study. Pol Merkur Lekarski 2005;19:529-32.  Back to cited text no. 22
Wikipedia. Phantom Vibration Syndrome. Available from: [Last accessed on 2016 Jan 19].  Back to cited text no. 23
Yildirim C, Sumuer E, Adnan M, Yildrim S. A growing fear: Prevalence of nomophobia among Turkish college students. Inf Dev 2015;32:1322-31.  Back to cited text no. 24
Deursen AJ, Bolle CL, Hegner SM, Kommers PA. Modelling habitual and addictive smartphone behavior: The role of smartphone usage types, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, age and gender. Comput Hum Behav 2015;45:411-20.  Back to cited text no. 25
Bianchi A, Phillips JG. Psychological predictors of problem mobile phone use. Cyberpsychol Behav 2005;8:39-51.  Back to cited text no. 26
Augner C, Hacker GW. Associations between problematic mobile phone use and psychological parameters in young adults. Int J Public Health 2012;57:437-41.  Back to cited text no. 27
Buckner V, John E, Castille CM. The five factor model of personality and employees' excessive use of technology. Comput Hum Behav 2012;28:1947-53.  Back to cited text no. 28
Sánchez-Martínez M, Otero A. Factors associated with cell phone use in adolescents in the community of Madrid (Spain). Cyberpsychol Behav 2009;12:131-7.  Back to cited text no. 29
Smetaniuk P. A preliminary investigation into the prevalence and prediction of problematic cell phone use. J Behav Addict 2014;3:41-53.  Back to cited text no. 30
Walsh SP, White KM, Cox S. Keeping in constant touch: The predictors of young Australians' mobile phone involvement. Comput Hum Behav 2011;27:333-42.  Back to cited text no. 31
Sahin S, Ozdemir K, Unsal A, Temiz N. Evaluation of mobile phone addiction level and sleep quality in university students. Pak J Med Sci 2013;29:913-8.  Back to cited text no. 32
Bivin JB, Mathew P, Thulasi PC, Philip J. Nomophobia – Do we really need to worry about? A cross sectional study on nomophobia severity among male under graduate students of health sciences. Rev Prog 2013;1:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 33


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]

This article has been cited by
1 Association of Smartphone Use and Digital Addiction with Mental Health, Quality of Life, Motivation and Learning of Medical Students: A Two-Year Follow-Up Study
Marise Machado de Oliveira, Giancarlo Lucchetti, Oscarina da Silva Ezequiel, Alessandra Lamas Granero Lucchetti
Psychiatry. 2023; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Social support as a mediator in the relationship between perceived stress and nomophobia: An Investigation among Malaysian university students during the COVID-19 pandemic
Samantha Arielle Lai, Khong Yun Pang, Ching Sin Siau, Caryn Mei Hsien Chan, Yee Kee Tan, Pei Boon Ooi, Mohamad Ikhram Bin Mohamad Ridzuan, Meng Chuan Ho
Current Psychology. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Exploring the prevalence of nomophobia in a Canadian university: An environmental scan
Anna Sui, Wuyou Sui, Jennifer Irwin
Journal of American College Health. 2022; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Validity of the Greek NMP-Q and Sociodemographic Determinants of Nomophobia Among University Students
Charalambos Gnardellis, Venetia Notara, Elissavet Vagka, Vasilis Gialamas, Areti Lagiou
International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction. 2022; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Prevalence of Nomophobia and an Analysis of Its Contributing Factors in the Undergraduate Students of Pakistan
Minaam Farooq, Musa Ali Rizvi, Waaiz Ali Wajid, Mohammad Ashraf, Mukarram Farooq, Haseeba Javed, Muhammad Ahmad Sadiq, Hamza Muhammad Jafar, Farooq Hameed, Mehdi Ali Rizvi, Aalia Tayyba
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Observation of the Auxiliary Treatment Effect of Low-Frequency Nerve Therapy Instrument after Hysteroscopy for Moderate and Severe Intrauterine Adhesions Based on Intelligent Medical Treatment
Mingyue Yin, Yingzheng Pan, Deepak Kumar Jain
Journal of Healthcare Engineering. 2022; 2022: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 A Social Media Outage Was Associated with a Surge in Nomophobia, and the Magnitude of Change in Nomophobia during the Outage Was Associated with Baseline Insomnia
Haitham Jahrami, Feten Fekih-Romdhane, Zahra Saif, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Seithikurippu R. Pandi-Perumal, Ahmed S. BaHammam, Michael V. Vitiello
Clocks & Sleep. 2022; 4(4): 508
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Nomophobia and Its Associated Factors in Peruvian Medical Students
Cesar Copaja-Corzo, Carlos Jesús Aragón-Ayala, Alvaro Taype-Rondan
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(9): 5006
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
Poonam Poonam, Arpana Arpana
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 NOMOFOMO in the health of the Smartphone User for the New Normal: a contribution to the Social Media Health Interaction Theory
Juan Mejía-Trejo
Scientia et Praxis. 2021; 1(02): 51
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 The Prevalence of Nomophobia by Population and by Research Tool: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression
Ali Humood,Noor Altooq,Abdullah Altamimi,Hasan Almoosawi,Maryam Alzafiri,Nicola Luigi Bragazzi,Mariwan Husni,Haitham Jahrami
Psych. 2021; 3(2): 249
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Nomophobia and the influence of time to REST among nursing students. A descriptive, correlational and predictive research
Antonio J. Moreno-Guerrero,Francisco J. Hinojo-Lucena,Juan M. Trujillo-Torres,Antonio M. Rodríguez-García
Nurse Education in Practice. 2021; 52: 103025
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Do Age and Educational Stage Influence No-Mobile-Phone Phobia?
Antonio-Manuel Rodríguez-García,José-Antonio Marín-Marín,Juan-Antonio López-Núńez,Antonio-José Moreno-Guerrero
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9): 4450
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 The relationship between the nomophobic levels of higher education students in Ghana and academic achievement
Harry Barton Essel,Dimitrios Vlachopoulos,Akosua Tachie-Menson,Kingston Rajiah
PLOS ONE. 2021; 16(6): e0252880
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 A Cross-Sectional Study on Smart-Phone Addiction among Late Adolescents and Young Adults (Aged 15 to 24 Years) of Ahmedabad City, Gujarat, India
Chirayu N. Pandya,Donald S. Christian,Mansi M. Patel
Journal of Evidence Based Medicine and Healthcare. 2021; 8(9): 491
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Nomophobia is Associated with Insomnia but Not with Age, Sex, BMI, or Mobile Phone Screen Size in Young Adults
Haitham Jahrami, Mona Rashed, Maha M AlRasheed, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Zahra Saif, Omar Alhaj, Ahmed S BaHammam, Michael V Vitiello
Nature and Science of Sleep. 2021; Volume 13: 1931
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Erciyes Üniversitesi Tip Fakültesi Ögrencilerinde Akilli Telefon Bagimliligi ile Akademik Erteleme ve Akademik Basari Arasindaki Iliski
Tip Egitimi Dünyasi. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 The relationship between nomophobia level and worry severity in future healthcare professional candidates
Filiz Polat,Leyla Delibas,Ibrahim Bilir
Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Relationships between personality traits and nomophobia: Research on nurses working in public hospitals
Gamze Uguz,Feride Eskin Bacaksiz
Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Mobile Phones: Vital Addiction or Lethal Addiction? Mobile Phone Usage Patterns and Assessment of Mobile Addiction among Undergraduate Medical Students in Telangana, India
Vinay Jahagirdar, Kaanthi Rama, Pranavi Soppari, M. Vijay Kumar, Elisardo Becona
Journal of Addiction. 2021; 2021: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Nomophobia in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence: the Development and Validation of a New Interactive Electronic Nomophobia Test
Ali Mahdi Kazem,Mahmoud Mohammed Emam,Marwa Nasser Alrajhi,Said Sulaiman Aldhafri,Hafidha Sulaiman AlBarashdi,Bahia Abdullah Al-Rashdi
Trends in Psychology. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Nomophobia: impact of cell phone use and time to rest among teacher students
Antonio-José Moreno-Guerrero,Jesús López-Belmonte,José-María Romero-Rodríguez,Antonio-Manuel Rodríguez-García
Heliyon. 2020; 6(5): e04084
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Evaluation of nomophobia among medical students using smartphone in north India
Janki Bartwal,Bhola Nath
Medical Journal Armed Forces India. 2020; 76(4): 451
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Differentiation of self, emotion management skills, and nomophobia among smartphone users: The mediating and moderating roles of intolerance of uncertainty
Mustafa Ercengiz,Banu Yildiz,Mustafa Savci,Mark D. Griffiths
The Social Science Journal. 2020; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 What is Your Level of Nomophobia? An Investigation of Prevalence and Level of Nomophobia Among Young People in Turkey
Ismail Bulent Gurbuz,Gulay Ozkan
Community Mental Health Journal. 2020; 56(5): 814
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Üniversite Ögrencilerinin Nomofobi Düzeyini Etkileyen Faktörler ve Ders Performanslari Üzerinde Nomofobinin Etkisi
OPUS Uluslararasi Toplum Arastirmalari Dergisi. 2020; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Nomophobia: An Individual’s Growing Fear of Being without a Smartphone—A Systematic Literature Review
Antonio-Manuel Rodríguez-García,Antonio-José Moreno-Guerrero,Jesús López Belmonte
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(2): 580
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Do Age, Gender and Poor Diet Influence the Higher Prevalence of Nomophobia among Young People?
Antonio-José Moreno-Guerrero,Inmaculada Aznar-Díaz,Pilar Cáceres-Reche,Antonio-Manuel Rodríguez-García
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(10): 3697
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 An Assessment of Pharmacy Students’ Psychological Attachment to Smartphones at Two Colleges of Pharmacy
Jeff Cain,Daniel R. Malcom
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 2019; 83(7): 7136
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Mobile Phone Use and Mental Health. A Review of the Research That Takes a Psychological Perspective on Exposure
Sara Thomée
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(12): 2692
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 The Use of Smartphones in Different Phases of Medical School and its Relationship to Internet Addiction and Learning Approaches
Mathias Paulo Loredo e Silva,Brenda Dutra de Souza Matos,Oscarina da Silva Ezequiel,Alessandra Lamas Granero Lucchetti,Giancarlo Lucchetti
Journal of Medical Systems. 2018; 42(6)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Materials and Me...
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded1005    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 31    

Recommend this journal