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Year : 1985  |  Volume : 29  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 168-74

National programme for the control of poliomyelitis.

Correspondence Address:
J Sokhey

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PMID: 3835134

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Oral polio vaccine was introduced into India's national immunization program in 1979-80. Coverage with this vaccine has increased rapidly from 0.67 million in 1979-80 to 9.63 million in 1984-85. 3 doses of the vaccine are recommended at age 3-12 months, followed by a booster dose 12-18 months later. The vaccine is administered along with the DPT vaccine. The vaccines are provided as a package of services under the expanded program on immunization (EPI). India's government initiated the EPI in 1978 with the goal of reducing the morbidity and mortality due to diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever by making vaccination services available to all eligible children and pregnant women by 1990. In 1985-86, measles vaccination was included in the program. Another objective was to achieve self-sufficiency in the production of vaccines required for the program. Immunization services are provided through the existing health care delivery system: hospitals, dispensaries, and maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in the urban areas primary health centers in rural areas. The aim of universal immunization for all India has been set for 1989-90; some areas may achieve this goal earlier. 30 districts and catchment areas of 50 medical colleges have been taken up in the universal immunization program for 1985-86. The objectives of the universal immunization program include: to provide universal immunization coverage to pregnant women and to infants; to document a reduction in the vaccine preventable diseases; to develop effective implementation and to streamline logistics; and to encourage the active participation of the medical faculty, interns, and students from the planning to the evaluation stages. The government of India provides the vaccines required under the national immunization program to the state health authorities. Over 50 million doses of oral polio vaccine are expected to be utilized during 1985-86. The annual requirements are likely to exceed 80 million doses by 1989-90. The planned targets of vaccination coverage are linked closely to the development of the cold chain system. Since 1984 field samples of oral polio vaccine have been collected for potency tests in order to monitor the quality of the cold chain for vaccines. The effectiveness of the control measures will be evaluated by determining the vaccination coverage of the eligible population and by recording the reduction in incidence of poliomyelitis in the area.

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