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   2019| January-March  | Volume 63 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 12, 2019

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Barriers for low acceptance of no scalpel vasectomy among slum dwellers of Lucknow City
Shazia Shafi, Uday Mohan, Shivendra K Singh
January-March 2019, 63(1):10-14
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_44_18  PMID:30880731
Background: Uttar Pradesh is the most populated state of the country having population of 199.581 million and total fertility rate of 3.3 (annual health survey [AHS] 2012–2013) with high fertile trajectory. Currently, female sterilization accounts for about 18.4% and male sterilization for 0.3% of all sterilizations in Uttar Pradesh (AHS 2012–2013). A strategy to promote men's involvement in effective birth control is needed to reduce the population growth. Since no scalpel vasectomy (NSV) is an easy method but still not being utilized; hence, the purpose of this research is to ascertain various factors of nonutilization of NSV. Objectives: The objective of the study is (i) to determine the barriers among married males for adopting NSV as a method of family planning, (ii) to determine the awareness about NSV, (iii) to suggest measures to increase uptake of NSV by the people. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out. A two-staged multistage random sampling technique was used. Lucknow is divided into eight Nagar Nigam zones. In the first stage, two urban slums from each geographical zone were selected randomly. In the second stage, from each selected slum a sample of 24 eligible households was selected at random to achieve the desired sample size. Results: It was observed that among the study participants maximum 89.2% perceived Sociocultural barriers, while 0.6% of the participants perceived service delivery barriers. However, 14% of the participants also perceived procedure-related barriers as the most important cause for not accepting NSV. Conclusion: Measures should be taken to remove these barriers, and increase uptake of NSV.
  2,723 270 -
Effectiveness of a community-based intervention on nutrition education of mothers of malnourished children in a rural coastal area of South India
G Pavithra, S Ganesh Kumar, Gautam Roy
January-March 2019, 63(1):4-9
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_383_17  PMID:30880730
Background: There is a paucity of evidence on improvement in malnutrition status after follow-up intervention among malnourished under-five children. Objective: The objective of the study is to assess the effect of community-based follow-up health education intervention on the awareness level of mothers, calorie intake, protein intake, and weight gain of malnourished children. Methods: This intervention study was conducted from December 2012 to October 2014 in three phases at rural Puducherry, coastal South India. The intervention group (57 mothers of 64 children) and control group (60 mothers of 64 children) included moderate and severely malnourished children aged 13–60 months. Children in the control group were taken from different areas and matched for age (±6 months) and sex. Health education intervention and follow-up supervision for 15 months were given to the mothers. Results: Awareness level in all domains increased significantly in the intervention group. In the intervention group, 81% (52) of malnourished children turned out to normal, whereas in the control group, 64% (41) of them became normal. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean changes in the protein intake among boys (15.34 g to 19.91 g in the intervention group against 13.6 g to 16.24 g in the control group) and girls (15.09 g to 19.57 g in the intervention group against 13.36 g to 16.51 g in the control group) and calorie intake among girls (993.86 kcal to 1116.55 kcal in the intervention group against 992.65 kcal to 1078.75 kcal in the control group) between the two groups. Conclusion: There was comparatively marginal increase in protein intake, calories' intake, and weight gain in the intervention group.
  2,049 786 -
Determinants of infant mortality in rural India: An ecological study
Abhijit Mukherjee, Sharmistha Bhattacherjee, Samir Dasgupta
January-March 2019, 63(1):27-32
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_59_18  PMID:30880734
Background: Long-term reductions in infant mortality (IM) are possible only by addressing the distal determinants. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to determine the relationship between IM and its major distal determinants in rural India. Methods: The dependent variable used in the study was state wise IM rate (IMR), the values of which were obtained from the Sample Registration System, 2015. State level literacy rate in females, unemployment rates of females, GINI index, and round-the-clock neonatal services in primary health centers in the rural areas and the per capita gross state domestic product at purchasing power parity (GSDP at PPP) of the states, were used as the predictor variables for IM. Relationship between the variables was obtained by the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Bivariate and multivariable linear regressions were used to identify the magnitude and direction of the predictors on IM. Results: Correlation statistics showed none or weak positive correlation between the Gini coefficient and 24 × 7 primary health-care services and IMR. There was a strong negative correlation between female literacy rate and IMR, while the unemployment rates and per capita gross state domestic product (GSDP) were moderately negatively correlated to IMR. Bivariate analysis revealed that, for unit increase in unemployment rates in females, proportion of literate women, and 1000$ increase in the GSDP at current prices, IMR decreased by 0.07, 0.763, and 1.702, respectively. However, after adjustment, only the female literacy rates showed significant association with IMR. Conclusions: Of the major determinants included in the study, rural female literacy is the most important distal determinant of IM in rural areas of India.
  2,463 350 -
EDITORIAL
Rheumatic heart disease: A neglected public health priority
Rajesh Kumar
January-March 2019, 63(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_216_18  PMID:30880729
  1,753 495 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence, risk factors, circumstances for falls and level of functional independence among geriatric population - A descriptive study
Pothiraj Pitchai, Hiral Bipin Dedhia, Nidhi Bhandari, Deepa Krishnan, Nikshita Ria John D'Souza, Jayesh Mahesh Bellara
January-March 2019, 63(1):21-26
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_332_17  PMID:30880733
Background: Falls is one of the common problems faced by elderly population and in preventing falls in India, research has largely focused on identification and management of risk factors, but the circumstances of the fall and its associated factors are sparsely researched. Objectives: The primary objective is to find the prevalence of fall, investigate risk factors, and its circumstances for falls and level of functional independence in elderly population. The secondary objective is to find out fear of fall (FOF) and its association of demographic factors on elderly population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study; 2049 elderly population of 60 years and above were recruited by one-stage cluster sampling technique within Mumbai, Panvel, and Thane cities, Maharashtra. Data were collected using a questionnaire, Fall Efficacy Scale-International, Barthel Index, and Kuppuswamy Scale. Obtained responses were analyzed using SPSS software; descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were applied. Results: The prevalence of falls in this study found as 24.98%. Demographic factors such as age group, education, marital status, and socio-economic status had demonstrated a significant association with older adults (P < 0.05); 44.92% of falls occurred in the morning, the majority of falls (65.43%) occurred indoors, 56.45% of the fallers reported to had slips, and 60.55% of the fallers had sustained injuries. From the total participants, 34.70% of the fallers reported FOF, 23.67% of the fallers expressed reduced functional activities, and 18.06% of the fallers demonstrated affection in activities of daily living. Conclusion: This study reveals fall as a significant health problem and provides insight into the influencing risk factors for falls among older adults.
  1,696 305 -
Oral health-related quality of life among elderly patients visiting special clinics in public hospitals in Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study
Puneet Chahar, Vikrant R Mohanty, YB Aswini
January-March 2019, 63(1):15-20
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_316_17  PMID:30880732
Background: Oral health is recognized as an integral component of general health, and poor oral health is reflected in general health and quality of life (QoL). India has seen a profound shift in the elderly population and is currently home to 103.9 million elders. General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) is a self-reported oral health assessment index used in elderly population and has been tested in multiple countries. Objective: The study aimed to assess the oral health-related QoL (OHRQoL) using GOHAI and various factors affecting it, among elderly patients visiting special Sunday geriatric clinics at Delhi public hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among four purposively selected special geriatric public clinics in Delhi, India, and a convenience sample of 145 elderly patients was obtained. OHRQoL was measured using a prevalidated instrument (GOHAI) along with other variables (sociodemographic factors, self-perceived oral health, utilization of medical/dental services, dental problems in the past 12 months, and prosthetic status/need). Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 21, and descriptive results were obtained. Results: The sample consisted of 66 males (45.5%) and 79 females (55.5%), and around 58% (n = 84) of the participants were illiterate. Around 39% (n = 57) of the elderly had never visited a dentist and 48% (n = 69) were financially dependent (no income) on others. The mean GOHAI score for the population was 26.69 + 4.44 (median = 25, interquartile range = 23–27). GOHAI score was compared for age, oral hygiene practices, dental problems in the past 12 months, self-reported oral health, and prosthetic need, and a statistically significant difference was observed. Conclusions: The current study assessed GOHAI score and highlighted important determinants of OHRQoL in elderly population visiting the special clinics in Delhi. Thus, OHRQoL should be considered as a surrogate measure to clinical oral examination.
  1,041 341 -
Depression among tuberculosis patients attending a DOTS centre in a rural area of Delhi: A cross-sectional study
Umang P Salodia, Surabhi Sethi, Anita Khokhar
January-March 2019, 63(1):39-43
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_109_18  PMID:30880736
Background: Studies have shown that the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly depression, is high among tuberculosis (TB) patients, and may adversely affect treatment compliance. A person suffering from TB can develop depression in due course of time owing to a number of factors, namely the long duration of treatment for TB, stigmatization faced by the patient due to the disease and lack of family support to name a few. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression and its correlates among TB patients enrolled at a Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) center in a rural area of Delhi. Methods: The study was a DOTS center-based, cross-sectional study, among 106 patients of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB, above 18 years of age. An interviewer-administered questionnaire in Hindi was used to collect basic sociodemographic data and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 was used for detecting depression. Those with a score of 10 or more were considered to be suffering from depression. Data analysis was done using SPSS licensed version 20. Chi-square was used to test for association between qualitative variables, and a P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 106 patients participated in the study, of which 61 (57.5%) were males. The median age was 30 years (inter-quartile range 24–40 years). Depression was found to be present in 25 (23.6%) participants. A higher proportion of patients with depression were unemployed currently, and also belonged to middle or lower class (P < 0.05). Depression was not found to be associated with religion, gender, marital status, HIV status, presence of diabetes, DOTS category nor with the phase of treatment. Conclusion: Depression among TB patients is common, affecting almost one in four TB patients. Physicians and DOTS providers should have a high index of suspicion for depression when assessing TB patients.
  922 272 -
BRIEF RESEARCH ARTICLES
Prevalence and risk factors of anemia and zinc deficiency among 4–6-year-old children of Allahabad District, Uttar Pradesh
Urvashi Sharma, Neelam Yadav
January-March 2019, 63(1):79-82
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_342_17  PMID:30880742
Anemia and zinc deficiency are two of the most daunting nutritional problems afflicting the young children among developing countries like India. Thus, in view of this the following study was designed to investigate the status of undernutrition and micronutrient status (iron and zinc) of children aged between 4 and 6 years of Allahabad district. The anthropometric measurements (height and weight); biochemical parameters (hemoglobin and serum zinc), and general information of the children were recorded. Out of the total 365 children studied, 92.9% were anemic out of which 90.6% (n = 307) were moderately anemic having and 2.3% belonged to mild anemic group. Serum zinc deficiency was 65.3%. Anemia was more commonly observed among undernourished children. In case of zinc deficiency poor nutritional status, the age of 60–71 months and rural settlement projected out to be the potent risk factors.
  779 226 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Meta-analysis of efficacy of iron and iodine fortified salt in improving iron nutrition status
Kapil Yadav, Akhil Dhanesh Goel, Vikas Yadav, Ravi Prakash Upadhyay, Sarika Palepu, Chandrakant S Pandav
January-March 2019, 63(1):58-64
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_420_17  PMID:30880739
Background: Salt fortification with iron is a potential strategy to increase population-level iron intake. The current evidence regarding double-fortified salt (DFS) in improving iron nutrition status is equivocal. Objective: To study the efficacy of DFS as compared to iodine fortified salt (IS) in improving iron nutrition status. Methods: Randomized controlled trials comparing DFS and IS until August 2016 were systematically searched across multiple databases to assess for change in mean hemoglobin (Hb), prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency (ID), ID anemia (IDA), serum ferritin, and serum transferrin receptor (TfR). Meta-analysis was performed using R software. Results: Of the initial 215 articles retrieved using the predetermined search strategy, data from 10 comparisons of DFS and IS across 8 randomized controlled trials are included. There was significant heterogeneity across included studies and the studies were of low to very low quality as per GRADE criteria. DFS significantly increased mean Hb by 0.44 g/dl (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16, 0.71) and significantly decreased anemia (risk difference −0.16; 95% CI: −0.26, −0.06) and ID (risk difference −0.20; 95% CI: −0.32, −0.08) as compared to IS. There was no statistically significant difference in change in ferritin levels (mean difference 0.62 μg/L; 95% CI: −0.12, 1.37), serum TfR levels (mean difference −0.23 mg/dL; 95% CI: −0.85, 0.38), and IDA (risk difference −0.08; 95% CI: −0.28, 0.11). Conclusion: DFS is a potentially efficacious strategy of addressing anemia as a public health problem at population level. There is a need for effectiveness trials before DFS can be scaled up in program mode at population level.
  767 232 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Gender differences and barriers women face in relation to accessing type 2 diabetes care: A systematic review
Neethu Suresh, Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan
January-March 2019, 63(1):65-72
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_26_18  PMID:30880740
The objectives of this systematic review were to find out whether gender differences exist in the domain of access to type 2 diabetes care and to identify the barriers faced by women in accessing type 2 diabetes care. A PubMed search was conducted for English articles published between January 01, 2005, and April 30, 2017, that looked into the above-mentioned topics. The search showed 219 articles, which were scrutinized and 21 articles were chosen for final review. Five articles dealt with gender differences, 14 articles dealt with barriers faced by women in accessing type 2 diabetes care and two articles dealt with both aspects. To accomplish the first objective, major areas studied by articles dealing with gender differences in accessing type 2 diabetes care were identified. In each of those areas, articles which reported gender differences were noted. Six out of these seven articles which dealt with gender differences (87%) reported that gender differences were present in the areas of type 2 diabetes care they studied. These articles also reported that women faced more difficulty in accessing type 2 diabetes care. To accomplish the second objective, data from articles dealing with barriers faced by women in accessing type 2 diabetes care were carefully analyzed and potential themes and theme categories were identified. Results showed that women faced personal, sociocultural, health system, economic, psychological, and geographical barriers in accessing type 2 diabetes care. Since this systematic review could identify only limited studies, evidence from more studies would help to confirm and generalize our findings.
  850 134 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Development of integrated care tool – BRIEF for screening the unmet psychosociomedical needs of older Indians
Prasun Chatterjee, George W Rebok, Sada N Dwivedi, Deepa A Kumar, Ruchika Madan, Aparajit B Dey
January-March 2019, 63(1):51-57
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_187_18  PMID:30880738
Background: With demographic shifts, there is an unprecedented increase in noncommunicable diseases, multimorbidity, and geriatric syndromes among older adults, especially in economically weaker sectors. However, there is no socioculturally appropriate tool to screen older adults for age-related health needs, multimorbidity, and geriatric syndromes at their doorstep. Objective: Our objective was to create a self-assessment tool, “integrated care tool” (ICT), and to assess its psychometric properties by applying it on older adults from multiple settings such as hospital, community, and old-age home (assisted living services). Methods: new questionnaire was developed using standardized procedure including item development, pilot testing, and psychometric validation. After obtaining the institutional ethics committee clearance, data were collected from consenting respondents attending the Outpatient Department of Geriatric Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, community settings through health camps, and long-term care center, between May 2016 and February 2017. Data were computerized and analyzed by principal component analysis as extraction method and orthogonal varimax as rotation method. Results: The final 30-item questionnaire was arranged into various domains as per rotated component matrix analysis. Overall internal consistency of the final questionnaire, as calculated by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.79, and the measure of sampling adequacy was 0.79. Conclusion: ICT-BRIEF is a simple, self-assessment/caregiver-assisted tool to screen the health needs of older adults. This tool can be validated for developing risk score and scaled up to generate a large database to create elderly centered care plans.
  605 173 -
Common mental disorders among HIV-uninfected women living in HIV serodiscordant setting: A clinic-based study in Pune, Maharashtra, India
Shrinivas S Darak, Swapna R Pawar, Sanjay S Phadke, Vinay V Kulkarni
January-March 2019, 63(1):44-50
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_112_18  PMID:30880737
Background: India is home to 2.1 million people living with HIV with an estimated 44% people having an uninfected partner. Living in HIV serodiscordant setting can be stressful, especially for women and can lead to several common mental disorders (CMDs). However, the occurrence of CMD in this population is not studied in India. Objectives: The study aimed to assess the occurrence of CMD in HIV-uninfected women living in HIV serodiscordant setting. A sample of 152 HIV-uninfected women who are wives of HIV-infected men attending an HIV clinic were interviewed by trained interviewers. Methods: The International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnosis of any of the CMDs was done using standard structured diagnostic interview MINI 5.0.0. Current, past, and lifetime occurrence was estimated for various CMDs. Chi-square and point-biserial correlation coefficients were used to understand the relationship between various sociodemographic and HIV-related factors with current CMD. Results: The current, past, and lifetime occurrence of at least one CMD was 35.5%, 49.3%, and 62.5%, respectively. Common diagnoses were mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Of the women with CMD, 22% had accompanying suicidality. Conclusions: The high rate of occurrence of CMD observed among the study population calls for more attention on the policy and program level to address the mental health needs of this population. Globally, more number of HIV-infected people are now linked to the care. This provides an opportunity to incorporate mental health care into routine HIV care.
  662 98 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Obstetric fistula: A challenge to public health
Dharitri Swain, Swayam Pragyan Parida, Saubhagya Kumar Jena, Mahasweta Das, Hrushikesh Das
January-March 2019, 63(1):73-78
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_2_18  PMID:30880741
Obstetric fistula (OF) is one of the most important consequences of a prolonged obstructed labor, a big issue for low-income countries (LICs) like India. The objective is to identify and explore the knowledge regarding OF as a public health problem in LICs from peer review literature. The PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases were searched to identify the prevalence, risk factors, and management of OF in LICs. Quantitative evidence-based paper reviewed. Twenty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. The 15 provided population-based OF prevalence data of OF and 12 provided risk factors and social causes of OF rates associated with the birth that caused an OF. OF has one of the big public health problems. There is a lack of scientific research on the prevalence and risk factors of OF in LICs. This review helps to eradicate or alleviate the problem of OF in LICs like India.
  605 120 -
BRIEF RESEARCH ARTICLES
Cyberbullying among late adolescent: A cross-sectional study in two higher secondary schools of Kolkata, West Bengal
Saswati Mukherjee, Debasish Sinha, Abhishek De, Raghunath Misra, Amitabha Pal, Tushar Kanti Mondal
January-March 2019, 63(1):86-88
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_92_18  PMID:30880744
Cyberbullying is a newer phenomenon which is becoming more prevalent among adolescent students with the use of information technology. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of being cyberbullied among late adolescent and to study the behavior and the attitude on cyberbullying. It was a cross-sectional study conducted on 254 school students (15–19 years). Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire, and results were analyzed using SPSS version 20. About 210 (82.7%) students were using any form of social networking site and out of which 22 (10.5%) students were cyberbullied. Among those who were cyberbullied, the majority (16 [72.7%]) had no opinion and more than half (15 [68.2%]) sought their friends' help. Cyberbullying is emerging as a newer social problem in our country, where students' lack of awareness and understanding of it results in underreporting of cyberbullying incidents.
  558 143 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Trends and future burden of tobacco-related cancers incidence in Delhi urban areas: 1988–2012
Rajeev Kumar Malhotra, Nalliah Manoharan, Omana Nair, S V S Deo, Gourva Kishore Rath
January-March 2019, 63(1):33-38
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_91_18  PMID:30880735
Introduction: Tobacco products are the major contributors for various cancers and other diseases. In India, tobacco-related cancers (TRCs) contribute nearly half of the total cancers in males and one-fifth in females. Objective: The objective of the study is to investigate 25-year trends and projection of TRCs for 2018–2022. Methods: Joinpoint analysis was performed to assess the trends of TRCs on world age-adjusted rates. Age-period-cohort model with power link function was performed to project the future incidence burden of TRCs in urban Delhi. Results: During the 25 years, a total of 67,129 TRCs (53,125 males and 14,004 females) were registered which was 25.4% of total cancer cases registered. Males contributed 39.1% and females 10.8% of total cases. In males, TRCs declined significantly from 1988 to 2003 with estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) = −0.91% and thereafter increasing trend was observed with EAPC = 3.42%, while in females, the EAPC values were 2.2% and 3.54% respectively for the same period. The total burden of TRCs will be doubled in 2018–2022 with around 46% change due to cancer risk and around 54% due to population age and size in both the genders. The average annual count in males will be 7310 in 2018–2022 as compared to 3571 in 2008–2012 while in females this count will be increased to 2066 from 955 based on recent slope. Conclusion: The incidence of TRCs is increasing due to increase in population age, size, and factors other than population. TRCs are the preventable cancers, and load of these cancers can be controlled with strictly adhering the policy and acts.
  463 127 -
LETTER TO EDITOR
Toddy consumption and amoebic liver abscess in India: An unexplored link
Ramesh Kumar, Rajeev Nayan Priyadarshi, Utpal Anand
January-March 2019, 63(1):89-90
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_192_18  PMID:30880745
  364 68 -
BRIEF RESEARCH ARTICLES
Level of endosulfan among women in Talwandi Sabo Block of Southern Punjab, India
Noopur Sharma, Roumi Deb, Ratika Samtani
January-March 2019, 63(1):83-85
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_363_17  PMID:30880743
Endosulfan is one of the most prevalent organochlorine pesticides used in the agricultural sector in the developing countries including India. It affects the physiological functioning of different organ systems including nervous, immune, hepatic, and reproductive system. Realizing the safety and health concern, restrictions have been imposed at various levels, but the usage has still continued in the plantation crops. Owing to pesticide beneficiary of north India, the cotton belt commonly called the Malwa region of Punjab was evaluated for identifying the levels of Endosulfan in the blood samples of women working in agricultural fields. Gas chromatograph with electron capture detector was used for detecting the levels of endosulfan metabolites among twenty active female workers. The mean level of endosulfan recorded in the tested population was observed to be 2.22 ppb. It is difficult to draw a certain conclusion based on these findings because the subjects were less in number. However, detection of even very low concentrations of endosulfan residues signifies its continued accessibility to the women population. Encouragement of more such population-based research needs to be adopted to determine the body burden of such pesticides in humans. The effective implementation of the ban on Endosulfan could be checked by a combined retrospective and prospective study to infer a justifiable impact.
  358 71 -
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