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   2017| September  | Volume 61 | Issue 5  
    Online since September 15, 2017

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Getting real with the upcoming challenge of electronic nicotine delivery systems: The way forward for the South-East Asia region
Jagdish Kaur, Arvind Vashishta Rinkoo
September 2017, 61(5):7-11
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_240_17  PMID:28928312
Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are being marketed to tobacco smokers for use in places where smoking is not allowed or as aids similar to pharmaceutical nicotine products to help cigarette smokers quit tobacco use. These are often flavored to make them more attractive for youth – ENDS use may lead young nonsmokers to take up tobacco products. Neither safety nor efficacy as a cessation aid of ENDS has been scientifically demonstrated. The adverse health effects of secondhand aerosol cannot be ruled out. Weak regulation of these products might contribute to the expansion of the ENDS market – in which tobacco companies have a substantial stake – potentially renormalizing smoking habits and negating years of intense tobacco control campaigning. The current situation calls for galvanizing policy makers to gear up to this challenge in the Southeast Asia Region (SEAR) where the high burden of tobacco use is compounded by large proportion of young vulnerable population and limited established tobacco cessation facilities. Banning ENDS in the SEAR seems to be the most plausible approach at present. In the SEAR, Timor-Leste, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and Thailand have taken the lead in banning these products. The other countries of the SEAR should follow suit. The SEAR countries may, however, choose to revise their strategy if unbiased scientific evidence emerges about efficacy of ENDS as a tobacco cessation aid. ENDS industry must show true motivation and willingness to develop and test ENDS as effective pharmaceutical tools in the regional context before asking for market authorization.
  2,115 145 -
Youth tobacco use in South-East Asia: Implications for tobacco epidemic and options for its control in the region
Manju Rani, Thaksaphon Thamarangsi, Naveen Agarwal
September 2017, 61(5):12-17
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_241_17  PMID:28928313
Nearly half of all male population and two in every five females in the WHO South-East Asia Region (SEAR) consume some form of tobacco. Preventing initiation among adolescents is critical for overall tobacco control. We assessed the trends in youth tobacco use and policies in SEAR. Data are used from school-based youth (Global Youth Tobacco Survey and global school student-based health survey) and adult (Global Adult Tobacco Survey, STEPS) tobacco surveys and the WHO Framework of Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC) implementation database. More than 10% of 13–15-year-old adolescent students reported tobacco use in 8 out of 11 countries. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco exceeded that of cigarettes except in Indonesia, Thailand, and Timor-Leste. No consistent declining trends in tobacco use were observed in any of the countries with 3 or more data points. More than half of all daily smokers aged 20–34 years initiated “daily” smoking before 20 years of age. 19% (Bangladesh) to 55% (Timor-Leste) of 13–17-year old students tried their first cigarette before their 14th birthday. Majority of adolescent students in most of the SEAR countries reported purchasing their cigarettes from store/shop/vendor and as single sticks, with few exceptions and purchased them as “single” cigarette. There is a limited change in affordability of cigarettes in SEAR over time. Tobacco use remains high among youth in SEAR. Efforts should be strengthened to fully implement/enforce recommended policy measures (legal minimum age, fiscal measures to reduce tobacco affordability; prohibiting sale of single cigarettes, etc.) and to explore new measures (e.g., tobacco-free generation).
  1,400 224 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of a brief smoking cessation intervention on adult tobacco smokers with pulmonary tuberculosis: A cluster randomized controlled trial from North India
Sonu Goel, Jeyashree Kathiresan, Preeti Singh, Rana J Singh
September 2017, 61(5):47-53
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_265_17  PMID:28928319
Background: An association between smoking and poor tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes has been globally established. Various smoking cessation interventions (SCIs) have been proven worldwide to curb smoking behavior. There is a need for evidence to assess if SCI increases the chance of successful treatment outcome among TB patients. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of a brief SCI; The Ask, Brief, Cessation support (ABC) package, on treatment outcomes and smoking cessation in smear-positive adult pulmonary TB patients. Methods: A cluster, randomized controlled trial was conducted wherein 17 designated microscopic centers of Chandigarh, India were randomly assigned using a computer-generated randomization sequence to receive SCI within directly observed treatment, short (DOTS) services, or existing standard of care. Eligible and consenting smokers (15 + years) registered as smear-positive pulmonary TB for DOTS (n = 156) between January and June 2013 were enrolled. Smoking cessation (self-reported) was assessed at intervals till the end of treatment. End TB treatment outcomes were extracted from patient records. Results: Treatment success was lower in intervention arm (83.6%) as compared control arm (88.2%), but the difference was statistically insignificant (P = 0.427). Smoking cessation was higher in intervention arm (80.2%) compared to comparison arm (57.5%) (adjusted incidence risk ratio = 1.56; 95% confidence interval = 1.24–1.93; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: SCI is effective in inducing smoking cessation among TB patients. No association of SCI with TB treatment outcomes could be detected.
  1,304 268 1
Tobacco use among thai students: Results from the 2015 global youth tobacco survey
Pantip Chotbenjamaporn, Vilailak Haruhansapong, Pensom Jumriangrit, Siriwan Pitayarangsarit, Naveen Agarwal, Renu Garg
September 2017, 61(5):40-46
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_234_17  PMID:28928318
Background: Tobacco use often starts in adolescence and is a leading cause of premature mortality. Two previous rounds of the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) found that a significant proportion of Thai youth currently smoke. Objectives: We conducted the third round of GYTS in Thailand in 2015 to monitor trends in tobacco use. Methods: We selected 31 public and private secondary schools using random sampling based on probability proportional to school enrolment. In each school, we selected 1–3 classes (Grades 7–9) by random sampling. All students in these classes from 30 schools (one school declined) completed a self-administered standard questionnaire in the Thai language. The association between tobacco use and independent variables was examined using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: Of 1876 students, 1721 were aged 13–15 years. Overall, 15% of students currently used tobacco; boys 21.8% and girls 8.1%. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 11.3%; 3.3% students currently used electronic cigarettes. Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home, school, and in enclosed public places was reported by 33.8%, 47.9%, and 38.6%, respectively. Among current smokers, 44% were not stopped from purchasing cigarettes despite being underage. Higher tobacco use was associated with being older, male, exposed to SHS, in possession of an object with a tobacco logo, and being offered a free tobacco product by a tobacco company. Conclusion: Tobacco and cigarette use among Thai students remains high. Underage current smokers have easy access to cigarettes. Urgent steps are needed to curb the access of youth to tobacco.
  1,264 187 -
Tobacco industry interference: A review of three South East Asian countries
Mary Assunta, Bungon Ritthiphakdee, Widyastuti Soerojo, May Myat Cho, Worrawan Jirathanapiwat
September 2017, 61(5):35-39
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_232_17  PMID:28928317
Background: The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 5.3 requires governments to protect tobacco control policies from the commercial interest of the tobacco industry (TI). TI interference is the biggest barrier to implementing comprehensive tobacco control measures. Objective: This paper reviews the extent of the TI's interference in tobacco control policy development in three countries, Thailand, Myanmar, and Indonesia, and the governments' efforts to protect these policies. Methods: The paper draws on incidents of TI interference reported in the 2016 Tobacco Industry Interference Index: ASEAN Report on Implementation of the WHO FCTC Article 5.3. Base data were obtained through a questionnaire on twenty most commonly reported incidents of interference from the FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines recommendations. A scoring system was developed. Results: All three countries faced varying levels of TI interference. Thailand, though known for its stringent tobacco control measures, still faced interference while Myanmar remains vulnerable. Indonesia faced the highest industry interference which may explain why it is lagging behind in tobacco control and remains a nonparty to the WHO FCTC. The TI gains access to government officials through offers of technical assistance and its corporate social responsibility activities. Transparency in dealing with the TI is needed in all three countries. Most governments have not set up disclosure procedures when dealing with the TI. Conclusion: Outside the Department/Ministry of Health, other departments remain unaware of Article 5.3, not utilizing its strength to regulate the TI. More concerted effort is needed to implement Article 5.3 to achieve greater success in tobacco control.
  1,296 132 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Using public interest litigation for tobacco control: Insights from India
Jagdish Kaur, Arvind Vashishta Rinkoo, Ranjit Singh
September 2017, 61(5):25-28
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_230_17  PMID:28928315
The Indian notion of “Public Interest Litigation (PIL)” represents a moral and humane process for providing justice to an individual or a group in matters relating to infringement of fundamental rights or denial of civil privileges. The goal of PIL in India is to counter governmental lawlessness, administrative deviance, and exploitation of disadvantaged groups by denying them their rights and entitlements. Although this paper selectively describes the use of the PIL mechanism for ensuring implementation of large graphic health warnings on packages of tobacco products in India, there is a sufficient published literature to corroborate the successful use of this mechanism in India in different tobacco control settings. In fact, over the years, this legal tool has allowed the tobacco control community in India, to extensively promote human rights approach to tobacco control. In the wake of growing interference of tobacco industry worldwide, this paper explores PIL as a potent and effective tool for claiming public health rights related to tobacco control. The PIL has considerable potential to be used for enforcement of tobacco control measures and for stopping tobacco industry from engaging in activities which are detrimental to the health of the people at large. It is important to continuously identify potential avenues through which lessons and recommendations pertaining to PIL could be incorporated into the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control implementation plans and guidelines, with special focus on different intercessional mechanisms that are available from time to time. To set the ball rolling, the authors suggest two such avenues.
  1,244 134 -
Smokeless tobacco and public health in Bangladesh
Rumana Huque, M Mostafa Zaman, Syed Mahfuzul Huq, Dhirendra N Sinha
September 2017, 61(5):18-24
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_233_17  PMID:28928314
Despite the high prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use among adults in Bangladesh, SLT was not included in the Tobacco Control Law till 2013. Information on SLT use among Bangladeshi people is inadequate for policymaking and implementing effective control measures. With the aim to identify the prevalence and trends of different SLT products, health and economic impacts, manufacture, and sale of and policies related to SLT in Bangladesh, we carried out a literature review, which involved literature search, data extraction, and synthesis. Evidence suggests that in Bangladesh, SLTs range from unprocessed to processed or manufactured products including Sada Pata, Zarda, Gul, and Khoinee. Over 27% of Bangladeshi adults aged 15 years and older use SLT in one form or other. SLT use is associated with age, sex, education, and socioeconomic status. SLT consumption has reportedly been associated with increased prevalence of heart diseases, stroke, and oral cancer and led to around 320,000 disability adjusted life years lost in Bangladesh in 2010. No cessation service is available for SLT users in public facilities. Compared to cigarettes, taxation on SLT remains low in Bangladesh. The amendment made in Tobacco Control Law in 2013 requires graphic health warnings to cover 50% of SLT packaging, ban on advertisement of SLT products, and restriction to sale to minors. However, implementation of the law is weak. As the use of SLT is culturally accepted in Bangladesh, culturally appropriate public awareness program is required to curb SLT use along with increased tax and cessation services.
  1,193 164 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Tobacco use among young adolescents in Myanmar: Findings from global youth tobacco survey
Nyein Aye Tun, Thuzar Chittin, Naveen Agarwal, Mya Lay New, Yamin Thaung, Pyi Pyi Phyo
September 2017, 61(5):54-59
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_236_17  PMID:28928320
Background: Tobacco consumption among youths poses significant public health problem in developing countries. This study utilized the available data of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) to assess the prevalence of tobacco use among Myanmar adolescents. Objectives: We have conducted the fourth round of the GYTS in Myanmar during 2016 to monitor trends in tobacco use. Methods: We have selected 51 schools using random sampling based on probability proportional to school enrollment. In each school, we selected grades 9–11 by random sampling. All students in these classes completed a self-administered standard questionnaire. Results: A total of 3633 students who were participated in the survey 2621 students were 13–15 year. Overall 13.6% of students currently used tobacco; boys 26.3% and girls 3.7%. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 8.3%; boys 17.0%, girls 1.5%, whereas 5.7% of students currently smokeless tobacco users; boys 11.0%, girls 1.5%. Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home, in enclosed public places, and school was reported by 33.2%, 28.4%, and 64.5%, respectively. More than four out of 5 (83.4%) students had noticed someone using tobacco on television, videos or movies, and 42.3% had noticed tobacco advertising at points of sale. Among current smokers, 62.9% were not refused by purchasing cigarettes because of their minor age. Conclusion: Myanmar has higher prevalence of tobacco use among students, especially among boys. The study provides evidence-based information for developing comprehensive tobacco control programs – both education and policy interventions to reduce smoking rate among young people in Myanmar.
  1,188 168 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Regulating smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut in South-East Asia region: The journey so far and the road ahead
Jagdish Kaur, Thaksaphon Thamarangsi, Arvind Vashishta Rinkoo
September 2017, 61(5):3-6
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_242_17  PMID:28928311
South-East Asia Region (SEAR) has more smokeless tobacco users as compared to smokers. The growing prevalence and cultural acceptance of consumption of flavored areca nut and related products, for example, supari and pan masala in many countries are confounding the scenario. The prevalence of a variety of tobacco products makes regulation a challenge which gets more complicated in view of weak enforcement of regulatory policies aggressive marketing of such products by the tobacco industry. Some countries have attempted to regulate smokeless tobacco and related products by enforcing bans. However, limited evidence base along with lack of technical and regulatory capacities have restricted the SEAR countries to effectively implement product regulation in respect of smokeless tobacco and related products. This paper lays out specific priorities for research and need to enhance regulatory capacity for smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut in the SEAR countries. A systematic and comprehensive search was conducted to identify all original published literature related to regulating smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut. Studies reporting on the same were obtained through searches in relevant academic databases. Relevant World Health Organization (WHO) documents and reports on tobacco products regulation were consulted. Generating the right evidence along with the need to build the capacity of the countries to test the smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut products by establishing testing facilities and providing practical guidelines is of paramount importance. The countries of the SEAR need to prioritize the implementation of Articles 9 and 10 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to strengthen the regulation of smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut products.
  906 171 -
BRIEF RESEARCH ARTICLE
Assessment of urinary cotinine levels in women with gynecological complaints at a tertiary care hospital: A pilot study
AG Radhika, Sruthi Bhaskaran, Jagdish Kaur, Anshuja Singla, Tusha Sharma, BD Banerjee
September 2017, 61(5):63-65
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_266_17  PMID:28928322
Gynecological effects due to smokeless tobacco exposure are not well studied. This cross-sectional study was undertaken with the objective to evaluate the urinary cotinine levels in women of reproductive age with gynecological complaints. The study was conducted in 2015 at the outpatient clinic of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi. A total of 192 consecutive women presenting with gynecological complaints (pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, and menstrual abnormality) were recruited. Their demographic details and tobacco exposure were recorded. All of them denied exposure to any form of tobacco. Urinary cotinine level of each participant was measured. The mean urinary cotinine level was 23.60 ± 12.00 ng/ml. PID was the most common gynecological complaint. Women with PID had significantly higher urinary cotinine levels compared to those with menstrual complaints and infertility: 24.9548 (±12.259) ng/ml versus 20.2042 (±10.9248) ng/ml. This study highlights the importance of addressing the issue of secondhand smoke exposure and reproductive morbidities in women.
  926 110 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Integrated brief tobacco and alcohol cessation intervention in a primary health-care setting in Karnataka
OT Sabari Sridhar, Pratima Murthy, KV Kishore Kumar
September 2017, 61(5):29-34
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_235_17  PMID:28928316
Background: Tobacco and alcohol use are important preventable risk factors for noncommunicable diseases and need to be addressed in primary health care. Objectives: To find the effectiveness of Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST)-based brief intervention for alcohol and tobacco in a primary health-care setting in Karnataka. Methods: This study was conducted in 2012 where one primary health center (PHC) in Karnataka was an intervention site and other the control site. One hundred patients each in both control and intervention PHCs took part in the study. In the control PHC, patients were administered the ASSIST questionnaire and given an information pamphlet on tobacco- and alcohol-related harm. In the intervention PHC, ASSIST-based brief intervention was provided for both tobacco and alcohol cessation. At the 3rd month, ASSIST questionnaire was re-administered to record their follow-up score. Chi-square test, paired t-test, and independent sample t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Following the initial assessment and intervention, there was statistically significant reduction in mean ASSIST scores for tobacco in both the PHCs. For alcohol, though there was reduction in scores in both PHCs, it was statistically significant only in intervention PHC. There was also a significant reduction in the number of heavy alcohol users in the intervention PHC following assessment and intervention. Conclusions: This study shows that with minimal intervention, there is reduction in the degree of both tobacco and alcohol use and calls for wider and stringent research on the same topic.
  843 191 -
EDITORIAL
Accelerating tobacco control in South-East Asia in the sustainable development goal era
Poonam Khetrapal Singh, Thaksaphon Thamarangsi
September 2017, 61(5):1-2
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_229_17  PMID:28928310
  816 183 -
COMMENTARY
Opening gambit: Strategic options to initiate the tobacco endgame
Pranay Lal, Rana J Singh, Ashish Kumar Pandey
September 2017, 61(5):60-62
DOI:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_231_17  PMID:28928321
Endgame strategies to rapidly hasten the decline of tobacco are already well within reach; a few plausible policy options are outlined herein for policy practitioners, tobacco control advocates, and public health specialists. The implementation of these measures which already exist within the gamut of existing legislation requires the galvanization of political will. The options we essay include liquidating existing public investments in tobacco, holding tobacco companies accountable within the jurisdictions of their operations, fixing liability for injury and the imposition of realistic costs on insurance providers.
  721 91 -
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