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   2014| January-March  | Volume 58 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 5, 2014

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Breast and cervical cancer risk in India: An update
Smita Asthana, Sonia Chauhan, Satyanarayana Labani
January-March 2014, 58(1):5-10
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.128150  PMID:24748350
Background: Breast and cervical cancers are two major cancers among Indian women. Analysis of trends would help in planning and organization of programs for control of these cancers. Objective: The objective of the following study is to compute risk of breast and cervical cancers using updated data from different cancer registries of India and study of its trends. Materials and Methods: Data on incidence rates of breast and cervical cancers were obtained from six major cancer registries of India for the years 1982-2008 and from the recently initiated cancer registries, North Eastern Registries of India with a total of 21 registries. Annual percent change in incidence and risk in terms of one in number of women likely to develop cancer was estimated for both the cancers in various registries. Results: The annual percentage change in incidence ranged from 0.46 to 2.56 and −1.14 to −3.4 for breast and cervical cancers respectively. Trends were significant for both cancers in the registries of Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai and Delhi except Barshi and Bhopal. North East region showed decrease in risk for breast and cervical cancers whereas increasing trend was observed in Imphal (West) and for cervical cancer in Silchar. Conclusion: North Eastern region recorded decline in the incidence of breast cancer which is contrary to the observation in other registries, which showed increase in breast cancer and decline in cervical cancer incidences.
  17,739 1,949 12
Effect of very early skin to skin contact on success at breastfeeding and preventing early hypothermia in neonates
Smita Srivastava, Amit Gupta, Anjoo Bhatnagar, Sanjeev Dutta
January-March 2014, 58(1):22-26
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.128160  PMID:24748353
Context: Birth and immediate postpartum period pose many challenges for the newborn. The neonatal mortality rates are high in India, whereas the breastfeeding rates are still low. Hence, need exists for a simple and easily applicable intervention, which may counter these challenges. Aims: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of very early skin-to-skin contact (SSC), in term babies with their mothers, on success of breastfeeding and neonatal well-being. Settings and Design: Randomized control trial conducted over 2 years' period in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Healthy babies delivered normally were included. Very early SSC between mothers and their newborns was initiated in the study group. We studied effective suckling (using modified infant breastfeeding assessment tool [IBFAT]), breastfeeding status at 6 weeks, maternal satisfaction, thermal regulation, baby's weight and morbidity. Statistical Analysis: T-test, Pearson Chi-square test and non-parametric Mann-Whitney test were used through relevant Windows SPSS software version 16.0. Results: We observed that SSC contributed to better suckling competence as measured by IBFAT score (P < 0.0001). More babies in the SSC group were exclusively breastfed at first follow-up visit (P = 0.002) and at 6 weeks (P < 0.0001). SSC led to higher maternal satisfaction rates, better temperature gain in immediate post-partum period, lesser weight loss was at discharge and at first follow-up (all P < 0.0001) and lesser morbidity than the study group (P = 0.006). Conclusion: Very early SSC is an effective intervention that improves baby's suckling competence, maternal satisfaction, breastfeeding rates and temperature control and weight patterns.
  17,284 1,487 19
BRIEF RESEARCH ARTICLES
Non-adherence to life-style modification and its factors among type 2 diabetic patients
Shirin Jahan Mumu, Farzana Saleh, Ferdous Ara, Fadia Afnan, Liaquat Ali
January-March 2014, 58(1):40-44
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.128165  PMID:24748356
Non-adherence to preventive and therapeutic life-style recommendations among patients with diabetes is special challenge in the management of these patients. This study aimed to measure the proportion of non-adherence to life-style modification and factors associated with these among a group of Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic patients. Under an analytical cross-sectional design 374 type 2 diabetic patients (age >20 years), diagnosed for at least 1 year, were selected from different health care centers operated by the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: Diet (88%), exercise (25%), routine blood glucose testing (32%), foot care (70%), smoking (6%) and betel quid chewing habit (25%). Binary logistic regression suggests that higher education group (P = 0.013), rural area (P = 0.013) and attendance to diabetes education classes (P = 0.043) showed good adherence to diet and non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.014), older age (P = 0.037) are associated to non-adherence to exercise. Unemployed patients showed more non-adherence to blood glucose testing (P = 0.045) than others. Non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.037) and business occupation group (P = 0.039) showed significant association to smoking and betel quid intake habit respectively.
  5,814 1,011 17
Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its association with tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure among rural population
BG Parasuramalu, N Huliraj, SP Prashanth Kumar, Gangaboraiah , NR Ramesh Masthi, CR Srinivasa Babu
January-March 2014, 58(1):45-49
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.128166  PMID:24748357
A field survey was conducted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) epidemiology in the rural field practice area of Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, India, which covers a population of 44,387 to find out the prevalence of COPD in adult subjects of 35 years and above using cluster sampling technique and to determine the association of tobacco smoking, environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) exposure and type of cooking fuel used with COPD. The overall prevalence of COPD was 4.36%. The prevalence among males and females were 5.32% and 3.41% respectively. The prevalence was found to be increasing with an increase in age. The tobacco smoke and exposure to ETS was significantly associated with higher odds of COPD with adjusted odds ratio 2.97 and 2.67 respectively. Thus, there was a significant association between tobacco smoking and ETS exposure with COPD.
  5,854 926 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Epidemiological profile of snake bite in South 24 Parganas district of West Bengal with focus on underreporting of snake bite deaths
Dayalbandhu Majumder, Abhik Sinha, Salil Kumar Bhattacharya, Rama Ram, Urmila Dasgupta, A Ram
January-March 2014, 58(1):17-21
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.128158  PMID:24748352
Background: Snake bite is a neglected public health problem in India. Very few community based epidemiological studies in India have been published so far on this issue. Most of the studies were carried out on hospital data. Previous community-based survey in the state revealed that only 22% snake bite victims attended hospitals. Objectives: The objective of the present study is to find out the epidemiological profile of snake bite in eight blocks of the South 24-Paraganas district of West Bengal and to explore the under reporting of snake bite deaths in health facilities in that area during the study period. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of snake bite data was carried out from a community-based epidemiological survey on 1.9 million populations. This survey was done door-to-door from January 2009 to October 2010 to get epidemiological profile of snake bite of the previous 2 years. The data of direct survey was compared with the official report of the same area to evaluate the hospital-based data with focus on underreporting of snakebite deaths. Results: A total number of snake bite cases as found in the survey in the study area was 4871. There was a huge gap between the two data (direct survey and official data). Only 7.23% snake bite deaths were officially reported. Only 22.19% of the snake bite victims attended the hospitals. Nearly 65.7% of the snake bite deaths were due to common krait bite, most of them occurring in the months of June to September. Conclusions: Official reporting system is still having a huge deficiency in India. Snake bite needs to get more attention from the health authority.
  5,427 683 6
Functional disability among elderly persons in a rural area of Haryana
Priti Gupta, Kalaivani Mani, Sanjay Kumar Rai, Baridalyne Nongkynrih, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta
January-March 2014, 58(1):11-16
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.128155  PMID:24748351
Background: The number and proportion of elderly persons is increasing, in India, as well as the world. Disability is an important indicator to measure disease burden in this group. While some chronic conditions may not be amenable to complete cure, their functional disabilities can be improved with timely and appropriate management. Objectives: The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of functional disability and study its association with socio-demographic variables and self-reported chronic conditions among elderly persons in a rural area of Haryana. Materials and Methods: All persons aged 60 years and above in the randomly selected six clusters were included in this community-based cross-sectional study. Information was collected on socio-demographic variables and self-reported chronic conditions. Functional disability was defined as having disability in activities of daily living, or blindness or hearing impairment, or a combination of these. In multivariate analysis, backward stepwise logistic regression was carried out to study the association between the independent and dependent variables, after adjusting for confounding variables. Results: Among the 836 participants studied, the prevalence of functional disability was estimated to be 37.4% (95% confidence interval: 34.2, 40.7). The prevalence was less among men (35.9%) than women (38.8%). The prevalence increased with age, was more common among persons who were not currently married, had diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusion: Functional disability is common among elderly persons in the rural area. Community-based interventions are needed to address them. Management of chronic conditions should include prevention and control of associated disability.
  4,106 1,034 9
BRIEF RESEARCH ARTICLES
A study on smoking and associated psychosocial factors among adolescent students in Kolkata, India
Nilay Nilay Bagchi, Samrat Ganguly, Sumita Pal, Sukanta Chatterjee
January-March 2014, 58(1):50-53
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.128168  PMID:24748358
Tobacco use among school children and adolescents is an increasing problem world-wide, particularly in the developing countries. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out in six co-educational high schools in Kolkata, West Bengal among 526 students of 15-19 years to determine the prevalence of smoking and to find out any difference among the smokers and non-smokers regarding factors related to family relations, peer group and personal characteristics. The overall rate of smoking was found to be 29.6%, mean age of initiation of smoking was earlier in males. Among smokers 75% students started smoking by 15 years. Smoking of father and peer group, family conflict and pornography addiction were found to have significant association with smoking of students. Early school health based interventions addressing these factors might help in effectively tackling this problem.
  3,952 728 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Utilization of maternal and child health services in western rural Nepal: A cross-sectional community-based study
Vishnu Khanal, Ramjee Bhandari, Mandira Adhikari, Rajendra Karkee, Chandni Joshi
January-March 2014, 58(1):27-33
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.128162  PMID:24748354
Background: Considering the commitment and investment of Nepal to reduce maternal and child mortality, understanding service utilization and factors associated with a child and maternal health services is important. Objectives: This study was examined the factors associated with utilization of maternal and child health services in Kapilvastu District of Nepal. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 by interviewing 190 mothers having children of aged 12-23 months using the standardized questionnaire. Results: Immunization status (97.4%) and vitamin A supplementation (98.4%) was high. However, initiation of breastfeeding within an hour of birth was low (45.3%) and 63.2% had practiced exclusive breastfeeding. Majority (69.5%) of respondents delivered their child at home and 39.5% sought assistance from health workers. The mothers who did not have any education, mothers from Dalit/Janjati and the Terai origin were less likely to deliver at the health facility and to seek the assistance of health workers during childbirth. Conclusion: The immunization program coverage was high, whereas maternal health service utilization remained poor. Interventions that focus on mothers from Dalit/Janjati group and with lower education are likely to increase utilization of maternal health services.
  3,677 883 2
EDITORIAL
Reforms in medical education: Optimizing quantity and quality
Samir Dasgupta,
January-March 2014, 58(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.128148  PMID:24748349
  3,668 863 -
BRIEF RESEARCH ARTICLES
Gross congenital malformation at birth in a government hospital
Sandeep Sachdeva, Smiti Nanda, Kapil Bhalla, Ruchi Sachdeva
January-March 2014, 58(1):54-56
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.128170  PMID:24748359
A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine proportion of gross congenital malformation (GCMF) occurring at intramural births. Rate of GCMF was found to be 16.4/1000 consecutive singleton births (>28 weeks) with three leading malformation as anencephaly (44.68%), talipes equinovarus (17.02%) and meningomyelocele (10.63%). Higher risk of malformed births were noticed amongst un-booked (2.07%) in-comparison to booked (1.01%) mothers; women with low level of education (up to 8 years [2.14%] vs. at least 9 years of schooling [0.82%]); gravida status of at least 3 (2.69%) followed by 1 (1.43%) and 2 (1.0%) respectively; pre-term (5.13%) vs. term (0.66%); cesarean section (4.36%) versus vaginal delivery (0.62%). Mortality was significantly higher among congenitally malformed (17.35%) than normal (0.34%) newborns. With-in study limitation, emergence of neural tube defect as the single largest category of congenital malformation indicates maternal malnutrition (especially folic acid) that needs appropriate attention and management.
  4,055 423 5
Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors at the blood bank of a Medical College of Kolkata
Prasanta Ray Karmakar, Prabha Shrivastava, Tapobrata Guha Ray
January-March 2014, 58(1):61-64
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.128172  PMID:24748361
Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) among blood donors can be used to monitor the prevalence among apparently healthy adult population. The present study was conducted to determine the profile of blood donors and seroprevalence of TTI among them. Retrospective analysis of the donors of a blood bank attached with a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata in 2011 was carried out. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 17. Majority (85%) of the donors were male, two-third in the age group of 21-40 years. Among the donors 2.79% were positive for any of the screened TTIs. Seroprevalence was highest for hepatitis B (1.41%) followed by human immunodeficiency virus (0.60%) and hepatitis C (0.59%) and least for syphilis (0.23%). Seropositivity increased with age up to 50 years. There was no significant difference in seropositivity between male and female. Highly sensitive donor screening and public awareness program can make transfusion of blood products safe.
  2,833 600 3
PUBLIC HEALTH EDUCATION
Engagement of national board of examinations in strengthening public health education in India: Present landscape, opportunities and future directions
Anjali Sharma, Sanjay Zodpey, Bipin Batra
January-March 2014, 58(1):34-39
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.128163  PMID:24748355
A trained and adequate heath workforce forms the crux in designing, implementing and monitoring health programs and delivering quality health services. Education is recognized as a critical instrument for creating such trained health professionals who can effectively address the 21 st century health challenges. At present, the Public Health Education in India is offered through medical colleges and also outside the corridors of medical colleges which was not the scenario earlier. Traditionally, Public Health Education has been a domain of medical colleges and was open for medical graduates only. In order to standardize the Postgraduate Medical Education in India, the National Board of Examinations (NBE) was set up as an independent autonomous body of its kind in the country in the field of medical sciences with the prime objective of improving the quality of the medical education. NBE has also played a significant role in enhancing Public Health Education in India through its Diplomat of National Board (DNB) Programs in Social and Preventive Medicine, Health and Hospital Administration, Maternal and Child Health, Family Medicine and Field Epidemiology. It envisions creating a cadre of skilled and motivated public health professionals and also developing a roadmap for postgraduate career pathways. However, there still exists gamut of opportunities for it to engage in expanding the scope of Public Health Education. It can play a key role in accreditation of public health programs and institutions which can transform the present landscape of education of health professionals. It also needs to revisit and re-initiate programs like DNB in Tropical Medicine and Occupational Health which were discontinued. The time is imperative for NBE to seize these opportunities and take necessary actions in strengthening and expanding the scope of Public Health Education in India.
  2,627 408 1
BRIEF RESEARCH ARTICLES
Morbidity among iron ore mine workers in Goa
Annet Oliveira, Jagdish Cacodcar, DD Motghare
January-March 2014, 58(1):57-60
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.128171  PMID:24748360
This study was carried out among workers from an open-cast iron ore mine in South Goa with an objective to assess morbidity among these workers. Investigations were carried out at the Occupational Health Service Clinic of the mining company. Nearly 0.6% workers had pneumoconiosis, 3.2% had abnormal spirometry findings, 38.16% had hearing loss and 27.7% had defective vision respectively. The prevalence of other chronic diseases were as follows: diabetes 5.1%, hypertension 8.3%, dyslipidemia 37.5% and polycythemia 12.7% respectively. Since the findings were not compared with the pre-placement records and as most of the workers are young with duration of exposures <10 years, relationship cannot be definitely determined. The study findings are suggesting an association between the occupation in mining with pneumoconiosis, compromised lung function and hearing loss. However for the other finding further analytical studies are required to see for any association. Airborne respirable dust survey and noise monitoring studies also need to be carried out.
  2,340 429 3
Community based monitoring under national rural health mission in Maharashtra: Status at primary health centers
Prakash Prabhakarrao Doke, Ashok Purshottamrao Kulkarni, Pushpa Omprakash Lokare, Muralidhar Tambe, Ratnendra R Shinde, Mohan B Khamgaonkar
January-March 2014, 58(1):65-68
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.128173  PMID:24748362
This study compares the implementation of community-based monitoring (CBM) in 45 primary health centers (PHCs) in the pilot phase in Maharashtra with the equal number of randomly selected PHCs not implementing CBM (non-CBM) from the same districts. Information was collected by teams from Community Medicine Departments by visiting selected PHCs. Establishment of monitoring committees and training of medical officers (MOs) had been completed as required but only 36.36% MOs were trained. Only 43.18% MOs received the facility report card. Most of the MOs (90.90%) attended Jansunwai and opined that it had increased community awareness and the barriers between the people and PHC staff were broken. There was no difference in fund utilization and meetings of Rugna Kalyan Samittees. Percentage of Institutional deliveries and women receiving Janani Suraksha Yojana benefits among home deliveries was more in the non-CBM group of PHCs.
  2,045 474 1
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Low birth weight among newborns and maternal poor periodontal status
Renuka Ammanagi
January-March 2014, 58(1):69-69
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.128174  PMID:24748363
  1,023 280 -
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