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   2012| October-December  | Volume 56 | Issue 4  
    Online since January 24, 2013

 
 
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SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
A study on infant and young child feeding practices among mothers attending an urban health center in East Delhi
Amir Maroof Khan, Priscilla Kayina, Paras Agrawal, Anita Gupta, Anjur Tupil Kannan
October-December 2012, 56(4):301-304
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.106420  PMID:23354143
A cross sectional study was conducted to study the diet pattern of children less than 2 years with regard to certain infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators. A total of 374 children less than 24 months of age coming to the immunization clinic were studied using a standard pretested and prevalidated questionnaire. Exclusive breastfeeding was followed by 57.1% of children under 6 months of age. Minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency, and minimum acceptable diet were seen adequate in 32.6%, 48.6%, and 19.7% of children between 6 months and 2 years of age, respectively.
  9,192 1,772 14
Tobacco abuse among school going adolescents in a rural area of West Bengal, India
Anindya Mukherjee, Abhik Sinha, Pranita Taraphdar, Gandhari Basu, Debadatta Chakrabarty
October-December 2012, 56(4):286-289
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.106416  PMID:23354139
Adolescents are vulnerable targets of tobacco industry with all consequences of usage. Studies reveal that tobacco abuse is rising in this age group in India. A cross sectional survey was carried out in two coeducational high schools of Anandanagar village of Singur block, Hooghly district, West Bengal among 276 students of VIII-IX standard to study the knowledge and abuse of tobacco and to find out influencing socio-demographic factors. Knowledge score was higher in females, students from nuclear families, and those with literate parents. Low prevalence of tobacco intake was obtained among the students, with 9.8% reported having ever used smokeless tobacco and 4.3% ever smoked. Tobacco intake was higher among those with a history of parental tobacco intake. Continued information education and communication (IEC) activities should be conducted by the school authorities, with involvement of nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and parents for primary prevention.
  4,585 803 3
REVIEW ARTICLE
Targeting rubella for elimination
Davendra K Taneja, Pragya Sharma
October-December 2012, 56(4):269-272
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.106413  PMID:23354136
Rubella is an acute, usually mild viral disease. However, when rubella infection occurs just before conception or during the first 8-10 weeks of gestation, it causes multiple fetal defects in up to 90% of cases, known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS). It may result in fetal wastage, stillbirths and sensorineural hearing deficit up to 20 weeks of gestation. Rubella vaccine (RA 27/3) is highly effective and has resulted in elimination of rubella and CRS from the western hemisphere and several European countries. Review of several studies documents the duration of protection over 10-21 years following one dose of RA27/3 vaccination, and persistent seropositivity in over 95% cases. Studies in India show seronegativity to rubella among adolescent girls to vary from 10% to 36%. Although due to early age of infection resulting in protection in the reproductive age group, incidence of rubella in India is not very high. However, due to severity of CRS coupled with introduction of RCV in private sector and in some of the states which is likely to lead to sub-optimal coverage and resulting higher risk of rubella during pregnancy in the coming decades, it is imperative to adopt the goal of rubella elimination. As in order to control measles, the country has adopted strategy of delivering second dose of measles through measles campaigns covering children 9 months to 10 years of age in 14 states, it is recommended to synergize efforts for elimination of rubella with these campaigns by replacing measles vaccine by MR or MMR vaccine. Other states which are to give second dose of measles through routine immunization will also have to adopt campaign mode in order to eliminate rubella from the country over 10-20 years. Subsequently, measles vaccine can be replaced by MR or MMR vaccine in the national schedule.
  4,334 786 6
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Screening for thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies in a tertiary care hospital of West Bengal: Implications for population screening
Bhawna Bhutoria Jain, Rabindra Nath Roy, Sulekha Ghosh, Tapan Ghosh, Uma Banerjee, Subodh Kumar Bhattacharya
October-December 2012, 56(4):297-300
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.106419  PMID:23354142
Hemoglobinopathies are common genetic disorders of hemoglobin, which can be prevented by population screening and offering genetic counseling. In absence of population-based screening for hemoglobinopathies, the hospital-based diagnosis register provide idea about the extent of problem in the community. The present study was undertaken to find out the burden of hemoglobinopathies and spectrum of this disorders among the population who were screened in the hospital-based screening program. A record-basedanalysis of subjects who underwent screening for hemoglobinopathies in Burdwan Medical College and Hospital over a period of 3 years and 4 months revealed that overall 29.3% of subjects were positive for hemoglobinopathies. Beta thalassemia heterozygous was the most commonhemoglobinopathy in this region closely followed by hemoglobin E heterozygous. In view of high prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in this region, a routine premarital screening program is needed for identification and prevention of high-risk marriages.
  4,363 637 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Forecasting incidence of dengue in Rajasthan, using time series analyses
Sunil Bhatnagar, Vivek Lal, Shiv D Gupta, Om P Gupta
October-December 2012, 56(4):281-285
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.106415  PMID:23354138
Aim: To develop a prediction model for dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) using time series data over the past decade in Rajasthan and to forecast monthly DF/DHF incidence for 2011. Materials and Methods: Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model was used for statistical modeling. Results: During January 2001 to December 2010, the reported DF/DHF cases showed a cyclical pattern with seasonal variation. SARIMA (0,0,1) (0,1,1) 12 model had the lowest normalized Bayesian information criteria (BIC) of 9.426 and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 263.361 and appeared to be the best model. The proportion of variance explained by the model was 54.3%. Adequacy of the model was established through Ljung-Box test (Q statistic 4.910 and P-value 0.996), which showed no significant correlation between residuals at different lag times. The forecast for the year 2011 showed a seasonal peak in the month of October with an estimated 546 cases. Conclusion: Application of SARIMA model may be useful for forecast of cases and impending outbreaks of DF/DHF and other infectious diseases, which exhibit seasonal pattern.
  3,650 1,122 9
PUBLIC HEALTH EDUCATION
Landscaping biostatistics education in India
Ranjana Singh, Sanjay P Zodpey, Kavya Sharma, Shrikant I Bangdiwala, Suresh Ughade
October-December 2012, 56(4):273-280
PMID:23354137
Biostatistics plays an important role in measuring, understanding, and describing the overall health and well-being of a population. Biostatistics as a subject evolved from the application of statistics in various research aspects of biology, biomedical care, and public health. However, with a recent increase in number of health and pharmacy related research, the demand for trained biostatisticians is also increasing. The present paper is an attempt to undertake a situational analysis of biostatistics education in India. A systematic, predefined approach, with three parallel strategies was used to collect and assemble the data regarding training in biostatistics in India. Our study results show that there is paucity of programs providing specialized training in biostatistics in India. Only about 19 institutions in India are offering various courses in biostatistics/medical statistics/health statistics/biometry. It is important to look into the current capacity building initiatives in this domain. Some other means for giving importance to biostatistics could be by making it a separate branch/specialization in a majority of the institutions, particularly in medical colleges.
  4,140 614 -
SPECIAL ARTICLE
Progress in health-related millennium development goals in the WHO South-East Asia Region
Poonam Khetrapal Singh
October-December 2012, 56(4):259-268
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.106412  PMID:23354135
Home to 25% of the world's population and bearing 30% of the Global disease burden, the South-East Asia Region [1] of the World Health Organization has an important role in the progress of global health. Three of the eight million development goal (MDG) goals that relate to health are MDG 4, 5, and 6. There is progress in all three goals within the countries of the region, although the progress varies across countries and even within countries. With concerted and accelerated efforts in some countries and certain specific areas, the region will achieve the targets of the three health MDGs. The key challenges are in sustainable scaling up of evidence-based interventions to improve maternal and child health and controlling communicable diseases. This will require continued focus and investments in strengthening health systems that provide individual and family centered comprehensive package of interventions with equitable reach and that which is provided free at the point of service delivery. Important lessons that have been learnt in implementing the MDG agenda in the past two decades will inform setting up of the post MDG global health agenda. This article provides a snap shot of progress thus far, key challenges and opportunities in WHO South-East Asia Region and lays down the way forward for the global health agenda post 2015.
  3,822 753 4
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Evaluating quality of health services in health centres of Zanjan district of Iran
Ali Mohammadi, Jamshid Mohammadi
October-December 2012, 56(4):308-313
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.106422  PMID:23354145
To assess quality of health services in Zanjan health centres based on clients' expectations and perceptions. The study was conducted by using service quality (SERVQUAL) scale on a sample of 300 females, clients of health care centres in the district of Zanjan, selected by cluster sampling. The results indicated that there were negative quality gaps at five SERVQUAL dimensions. The most and least negative quality gap mean scores were in reliability dimension (-2.1) and tangible (-1.13) respectively. There was statistically significant difference between clients' perceptions and expectations mean scores at all of the five service quality dimensions (P<0.001). The negative quality gap level in health service dimensions can be used as a guideline for redistribution of resources and managerial attempts to reduce quality gaps and improvement of health care quality.
  3,882 590 4
Assessment of nutritional status by composite index for anthropometric failure: A study among slum children in Bankura, West Bengal
Subhadeep Shit, Pranita Taraphdar, Dipta K Mukhopadhyay, Apurba Sinhababu, Akhil B Biswas
October-December 2012, 56(4):305-307
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.106421  PMID:23354144
A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the prevalence of composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) among 117 slum dwelling under-five children in Bankura town, West Bengal and its relation with some common socio-economic factors. Among study population, the prevalence of underweight was 41.6%, whereas CIAF was 80.3%. CIAF gave a near complete estimation of undernutrition unlike underweight. Children who were unimmunized, with more number of siblings, living in a nuclear family, or with illiterate mothers were more likely to be undernourished.
  3,225 787 4
Ocular morbidity among children at a tertiary eye care hospital in Kolkata, West Bengal
Jaya Biswas, Indranil Saha, Debabrata Das, Sabyasachi Bandyopadhyay, Biswarup Ray, Gautam Biswas
October-December 2012, 56(4):293-296
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.106418  PMID:23354141
Eye diseases in childhood are important causes of medical consultation and it affects learning ability, adjustment in school and personality. To determine the pattern of ocular morbidity a cross-sectional observational study was conducted among 714 children, attending Ophthalmology department at a tertiary eye care center in Kolkata, West Bengal. All the children less than 15 years of age, attending in Unit II outpatient department were selected by complete enumeration method for duration of one year (January-December 2010). Distribution of association was analyzed by Chi-square test and difference between two proportions was calculated by z test for proportions. The common ocular morbidity were refractive errors (23.67%) followed by allergic conjunctivitis (17.23%), infection of the eye and adnexa (15.13%), ocular trauma (12.74%), and congenital eye diseases (13.59%). Majority of ocular morbidity is treatable and need early attention through eye screening cum intervention program beginning right from the childhood.
  3,419 532 3
EDITORIAL
Spiritual well-being: The fourth dimension of health
Sri Mumtaz Ali
October-December 2012, 56(4):257-258
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.106411  PMID:23354134
  2,886 700 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Study on the availability of physical infrastructure and manpower facilities in sub-centers of Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh
N Bayapa Reddy, G Ravi Prabhu, T S R Sai
October-December 2012, 56(4):290-292
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.106417  PMID:23354140
The sub-centers (SCs) are under constant criticism for their inability to deliver quality services due to the nonavailability of adequate infrastructure, manpower and supply of drugs.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh to assess the availability of physical infrastructure and manpower in the SCs. A total of 34 SCs were selected by multistage and stratified random sampling technique. The data was statistically analyzed by using Microsoft Excel. The deficiency in the availability of health workers male and female were found to be 67.7% and 27.5%, respectively. The residential facility for health workers was available only in 26.4% SCs. Only 20.6% of SCs had stethoscope and B.P apparatus. The physical infrastructure and manpower availability at the SCs needs considerable improvement as per the Indian Public Health Standard (IPHS). Facilities to conduct the normal delivery and 24-hours emergency referral services need to be addressed at the earliest.
  2,645 471 1
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Nurses and Alzheimer's disease: A holistic perspective
Radha Saini, Preety Alagh, Brain Carpenter
October-December 2012, 56(4):318-319
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.106424  PMID:23354147
  2,835 238 1
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among rural women in a primary health centre area in Tamil Nadu
I Selvaraj, S Gopalakrishnan, M Logaraj
October-December 2012, 56(4):314-317
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.106423  PMID:23354146
A study was conducted to estimate prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 150 rural women in the age group of 30-50 years in a primary health centre area in Tamil Nadu. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated using National Cholesterol Education program (NCEP), Third report Adult Treatment Panel ATP III criteria, and Modified NCEP ATP III criteria for Asian Indians. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found to be 30.7% based on NCEP, ATP-III Criteria. Based on the Modified NCEP, ATP-III Criteria, the prevalence was found to be 36%.The most commonly observed components of metabolic syndrome in this study was increased waist circumference (56.0%) followed by low HDL (45.3%), high triglyceride (37.3%), high blood pressure 29.3%, and fasting blood sugar 12.7%. Identifying the risk factors and treating patients with the metabolic syndrome is a public health challenge especially in the rural population.
  2,476 595 5
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