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   2012| April-June  | Volume 56 | Issue 2  
    Online since August 21, 2012

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and 15 years old school children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water in an endemic fluoride belt of Andhra Pradesh
Chandra Shekar, Manjunath Bhadravathi Cheluvaiah, Dinesh Namile
April-June 2012, 56(2):122-128
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.99902  PMID:22910620
Background: The published literature on the prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental fluorosis among school going children in Nalgonda district - An Endemic Fluoride belt was lacking . Objectives: To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and dental caries among 12 and 15 years old children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water . Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study, done in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, India (endemic fluoride belt) . Materials and Methods: 5 of the 59 mandals in the district of Nalgonda were selected by simple random sampling. Then, 3 schools from each of these selected mandals were chosen at random. All the eligible 6 th and 9 th standard children were considered for final analysis. The demographic and other relevant information was collected by 3 trained and calibrated dentists, using a structured questionnaire. Dental caries were recorded using dentition status and treatment needs and fluorosis were recorded by Dean's fluorosis index. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results: The prevalence of dental caries among children was 56.3% with the highest in below optimal fluoride area (71.3%) and lowest in optimal fluoride area (24.3%). The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 71.5%. The prevalence was 39.7% in below optimal fluoride area and 100% in high and very fluoride areas. The prevalence and severity of fluorosis increased with increasing fluoride concentration. The caries experience was more among boys than girls. Conclusion: There was a negative correlation between dental caries and fluoride concentration for the entire study population. However, in high fluoride areas, there was a positive correlation between fluoride concentration and dental caries. Water defluoridation on an urgent basis is a priority here than water fluoridation, because the prevalence and severity of dental flurorosis is very high.
  7,822 1,611 7
Impact of HIV/AIDS on quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS in Chitradurga district, Karnataka
KH Rajeev, BY Yuvaraj, MR Nagendra Gowda, SM Ravikumar
April-June 2012, 56(2):116-121
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.99901  PMID:22910619
Background: HIV/AIDS is fatal illness which leaves the victim vulnerable. Quality of life in individuals living with HIV/AIDS is becoming crucial for measuring commonly used endpoints. The study of psychosocial factors also influences the health outcome of People Living with HIV/AIDS. Aim: To assess the Quality of life of PLHA in relation to various socio-demographic and clinical correlates. Setting and Design: A community care center in Chitradurga district and it is a Cross sectional study. Methods and Materials: About 395 PLHAs registered in the centre constituted the sample. WHOQOL - 120 instrument was used for assessing quality of life. The socio demographic factors were also obtained in pre designed proforma. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions, Mean, Std deviation, One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Results and Conclusion: The Quality of Life scores for all domains were intermediate for the PLHAs between (10 - 14). The mean scores were highest for psychological domain. There was a significant difference in QOL of PLHA who were on ART and Not on ART in some domains. PLHAs who were literates, married, Single, employed, income more than 1500 not on ART, CD4 count more than 200, earlier stages of HIV, living with spouse and students had high mean scores. Mean difference of QOL scores with duration of ART intake were statistically significant in psychological and Spirituality domains. QOL was found to be determined by education, income, occupation, ART status, duration of taking ART and clinical categories of the disease.
  7,352 1,080 4
COMMENTARY
Domestic violence in India: Need for public health action
Stephen Lena Charlette, Baridalyne Nongkynrih, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta
April-June 2012, 56(2):140-145
  5,124 738 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
High burden of dental caries in geriatric population of India: A systematic review
Rahul Srivastava, Baridalyne Nongkynrih, Vijay Prakash Mathur, Anil Goswami, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta
April-June 2012, 56(2):129-132
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.99903  PMID:22910621
Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. Poor oral health and untreated oral diseases can have a significant impact on the quality of life of the elderly. The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of dental caries among the elderly persons in India in the past two decades. A systematic review from available literature was carried out. Six community-based articles were included in this review. The selected studies were screened by using STROBE checklist for observational studies. All studies were found to contain the required essentials of observational studies. Weighted prevalence of dental caries experience was calculated. Trend was generated using Microsoft Excel program. The prevalence of dental caries experience ranged from 31.5 to 100%. Weighted prevalence of dental caries experience was 83.6% and 82.3% for 2000-2004 and 2005-2009, respectively. There is a high burden of dental caries in the elderly population. Treatment and restorative services need to be provided to alleviate this problem.
  4,517 797 -
PUBLIC HEALTH EDUCATION
An innovative National Rural Health Mission capacity development initiative for improving public health practice in India
Preeti Negandhi, Kavya Sharma, Sanjay Zodpey
April-June 2012, 56(2):110-115
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.99900  PMID:22910618
National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) foresaw improved health management in India through sustained capacity development of in-service health personnel and their post-training duties in the public health system. Acknowledging the urgency of addressing this issue, the Indian Government, under the NRHM, launched a 1-year Post Graduate Diploma in Public Health Management (PGDPHM) to impart public health management knowledge and skills to these professionals in the state health services. Four institutes partnered this program in 2008, its first year. Between 2008 and 2011, this expanded to 10 institutes and 386 students have graduated the program. The program offered across all these institutes is uniquely identified as against other Health Management courses being offered across the country. The NRHM context in its content and pedagogy is its prime feature. The program offers multiple opportunities to encourage states and the central government to clearly delineate a much needed specialized public health cadre in India. The efforts of this program emphasize on improved public health practice and are a unique pathway to a better health system. Its multidisciplinary facets are aimed at addressing the mismatch of demand and supply of health professionals who could contribute effectively to strengthening the public health system in India through proficient public health practice.
  3,717 763 3
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
The effect of the lunar cycle on frequency of births: A retrospective observational study in Indian population
Saswata Bharati, Malay Sarkar, Partha Sarathi Haldar, Swapan Jana, Subrata Mandal
April-June 2012, 56(2):152-154
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.99913  PMID:22910625
For ancient period moon has been held responsible for many biological activities. That way, lunar cycle, by activity of moon, has been held responsible for increase in number of child birth. In this retrospective, observational study, we examined a total of 9890 full-term spontaneous deliveries as well as non-elective cesarean sections that occurred throughout 12 lunar months (February 7 th , 2008-January 25 th , 2009) in a rural medical college to evaluate the influence of the lunar position on the distribution of deliveries among Indian population. Student's 't' test and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis where each delivery was considered as a single measure. We found no significant differences in the frequency of births during various phase of lunar cycle regardless of route of delivery. Our observations do not support the hypothesis of a relationship between lunar cycle and the frequency of obstetric deliveries.
  4,027 325 3
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase screening of babies born in a tertiary care hospital in West Bengal
Sukamal Bisoi, Sumanta Chakraborty, Dipankar Chattopadhyay, Biswajit Biswas, Sarbajit Ray
April-June 2012, 56(2):146-148
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.99908  PMID:22910623
About 400 million individuals worldwide have been affected by the inherited disorder of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency that predisposes individuals to neonatal jaundice or hemolytic crisis due to drugs or infections. A descriptive observational study with longitudinal design was undertaken among 109 live newborns, delivered in labor room of IPGME and R, Kolkata during the period from June to August 2009. An objective of the study was to estimate the occurrence of G6PD deficiency among newborns and its association with different socio-demographic, clinical and gestational characteristics. 14.68% newborns were found G6PD deficient. This occurrence was not significantly related to gender, religion and ethnicity, consanguineous marriage of the parents, gestational age and birth weight of the baby. Development of severe jaundice (total serum bilirubin >15 mg/dl) was found 23.8% among G6PD deficient babies and 12.5% among non-G6PD deficient. This difference was statistically not significant.
  3,622 512 6
Visual impairment in urban school children of low-income families in Kolkata, India
Sambuddha Ghosh, Udayaditya Mukhopadhyay, Dipankar Maji, Gautam Bhaduri
April-June 2012, 56(2):163-167
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.99919  PMID:22910628
To evaluate pattern of visual impairment in school children from low-income families in Kolkata, India, an institutional cross-sectional study was conducted among 2570 children of 10 primary schools. Ocular examination including refraction was done and pattern of visual impairment and refractive error was studied. The age range was 6-14 years. Refractive error was seen in 14.7%. Only 4 children were already wearing correction. Myopia and hypermetropia was present in 307 (11.9%) and 65 (2.5%) children, respectively. Visual acuity of less than 6/12 in better eye was present in 109 (4.2%) and 5 (0.2%) children pre- and post-correction, respectively. Eighteen children had amblyopia. Although prevalence of refractive error in this group is less compared to school children of all income categories reported from other cities of India, it is more compared to school children of all income categories from the same city. Refractive error mostly remains uncorrected in this group.
  3,462 506 5
Mental health, protective factors and violence among male adolescents: A comparison between urban and rural school students in West Bengal
Amrita Samanta, Shuvankar Mukherjee, Santanu Ghosh, Aparajita Dasgupta
April-June 2012, 56(2):155-158
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.99916  PMID:22910626
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 199 (104 urban, 95 rural) male students of classes VIII and IX, of two schools, in urban and rural areas of West Bengal to compare the prevalence of protective factors, mental health issues, and violence among the urban and rural adolescents using a self-administered questionnaire. Higher proportion of urban students than rural (67.3% vs. 62.5%) reported that their guardians understood their problems. Mental health issues like loneliness (17.3% vs. 9.8%), worry (17.3% vs. 10.7%), and suicidal thoughts (19.2% vs. 14.1%) were higher among urban students. Physical fight (53.8% vs. 11.6%), bullying (46.4% vs. 17%), physical attack by family members (46% vs. 17%), and by teachers (53% vs. 10.7%) were all more in urban adolescents. Mental health- and violence-related issues were prevalent more among urban students than those among rural students in spite of having more protective factors suggesting the need of frequent supervision, monitoring, and support of adolescents.
  3,262 580 5
REVIEW ARTICLES
Understanding the syndrome of techno-centrism through the epidemiology of vaccines as preventive tools
Vikas Bajpai, Anoop Saraya
April-June 2012, 56(2):133-139
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.99904  PMID:22910622
Conquering disease and ill health has been an age old pursuit of man. The scientific and technological revolution of the last century ushered in major and important advances in preventive and curative medical technology which fired a new hope in the fight against communicable diseases. However, the experience over centuries shows that major decline in communicable diseases began much before the advent of modern technology due to advances in the socio-economic and environmental conditions of the people. There has been an attempt by the multilateral and unilateral agencies to supplant the expedient of technological interventions like vaccination campaigns as a substitute to socio-economic advancement in the third world countries. The dividends of this approach have been equivocal and have had an effect of distorting public health priorities in the third world. There seems to be an obsession with technology among the policy planners - a phenomenon that we call as techno-centrism; the latest example of which is the pulse polio campaign. This paper draws upon an epidemiological approach to vaccination programs as a tool to unravel this phenomenon.
  3,302 290 4
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Outbreak of "Modified measles" in an urban resettlement colony of North India
Binod Kumar Patro, Heamant D Shewade, S Kathirvel, Suraj S Senjam, Mini P Singh, RK Ratho
April-June 2012, 56(2):168-169
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.99921  PMID:22910629
  3,014 302 1
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Breast feeding practices among health care professionals in a tertiary care hospital from South India
Raghavan Renitha, Thirunavukkarasu Arun Babu, Manish Kumar, Sadagopan Srinivasan
April-June 2012, 56(2):149-151
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.99910  PMID:22910624
Personal breastfeeding experiences of health care professionals play a major role in influencing their attitudes and expertise regarding counseling and managing breastfeeding issues in patients. This study was done with an objective of studying the current breastfeeding practices among health care professionals (HP) and their spouses and the factors influencing them. All children < 5 years of age, residing in hospital's residential quarters, were included. A detailed breastfeeding history demographic data were obtained following a semi-structured interview with mothers. Among 81 children included for analysis, in 73 children (90.1%), an initiation of breastfeeding was within 24 hours of birth and in 36 children (44.4%), it was within first hour of life. 43 children (58.1%) were exclusively breast fed for 6 months. Mean duration of EBF was 5.3 months and total duration of breastfeeding was 13.2 months. Gender of HP, gender of the child and socio-economic factors were not found to significantly affect breastfeeding practices among HP.
  2,727 534 -
EDITORIAL
The medical mandala: The public health benefits of entrepreneurship tools and skills among medical students in India
Grant Rhodes
April-June 2012, 56(2):105-109
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.99899  PMID:22910617
  2,308 390 1
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Mass media exposure to tobacco messages among secondary school children in Mumbai
Nikita Shiraz Surani, Hemal Pereira Shroff
April-June 2012, 56(2):159-162
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.99917  PMID:22910627
The objectives of this study were to explore differences in exposure to media messages (pro- and antitobacco messages, marketing and promotions) between students consuming tobacco, areca nut, nonconsumers, and those intending to quit and to examine differences between municipal and private school students. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey was completed by secondary school students (N = 534) from municipal and private schools in Mumbai. Overall, the number of students who reported ever use of tobacco was quite low (5.1%). There was no significant difference in exposure to media messages between users of tobacco, areca nut, and nonusers. There were significantly higher numbers of ever users of tobacco in private compared to municipal schools. There was a significant association between exposure to marketing and promotions and intention to quit, but not with the other exposure variables. Media exposure may be related to intention to quit but not to quitting behavior.
  2,098 293 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in schoolgoing children
Sai Leela Kondapaneni, Rajendra Surpam, Mohd Azaruddin , Gayathri Devi
April-June 2012, 56(2):169-170
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.99925  PMID:22910630
  1,660 302 3
OBITUARY
Obituary: Dr. Bir Singh

April-June 2012, 56(2):171-171
  1,525 148 -
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