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   2011| January-March  | Volume 55 | Issue 1  
    Online since June 30, 2011

 
 
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PUBLIC HEALTH EDUCATION
Understanding the current status and exploring the potential for distance education in public health in India
Kavya Sharma, Sunil George, Sanjay Zodpey
January-March 2011, 55(1):7-13
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.82533  PMID:21727674
Continuing education of health care providers plays an important role in producing a health work force that is efficient and effective. In India public health education has primarily relied on conventional methods of training. However, such methods have limitations in equipping the health workforce of a vast and varied country like India. This paper analyzes the current status of distance education in public health and lists the various courses that are presently available in India through the distance education mode. Presently 25 institutions in India are offering 69 courses in various domains of public health through distance education. The providers of these programs comprised both government and private educational institutions. This paper also points out the role and importance of various stakeholders in the design and delivery of distance education programs in public health and raises key areas that need attention in the governance of such programs. It urges the use of digital technology in the delivery of distance education programs and points out how distance education that is designed and delivered using the latest technology could address the current gap in training human resources for health in India.
  5 3,246 423
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Glucose indices, frank and undetected diabetes in relation to hypertension and anthropometry in a South Indian rural population
Forhad Akhtar Zaman, Ranabir Pal, Gaffar Sarwar Zaman, Indupalli Amruta Swati, Abdul Kayyum
January-March 2011, 55(1):34-37
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.82545  PMID:21727679
Diabetes has emerged as one of the world's biggest health problems and its prevalence is increasing at an alarming rate. This study was conducted to find out the magnitude of frank and undetected diabetes mellitus, including impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) among persons in rural Karnataka, and its relationship with associated risk factors like hypertension and anthropometry. This was a population-based, cross-sectional study on 1370 participants in the field practice area of KBN Medical College, conducted from April 2009 to March, 2010. Diabetes mellitus was noted among 19.78% of the participants, with an additional 12.04% with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension observed among participants with diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance was 65.13 and 53.94%, respectively. Effective primary prevention strategies have to be intensified among high-risk population groups, to promote awareness through behavior change communication.
  4 2,206 393
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Community medicine departments and public health education in India at crossroads!
Binod Kumar Patro, Amarjeet Singh
January-March 2011, 55(1):56-57
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.82564  PMID:21727686
  3 2,254 338
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Risk factors associated with MDR-TB at the onset of therapy among new cases registered with the RNTCP in Mumbai, India
Sachin R Atre, Desiree T. B. D'Souza, Tina S Vira, Anirvan Chatterjee, Nerges F Mistry
January-March 2011, 55(1):14-21
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.82536  PMID:21727675
Background: Multidrug - resistant TB (MDR - TB) has emerged as a major threat to global TB control efforts in recent years. Facilities for its diagnosis and treatment are limited in many high - burden countries, including India. In hyper - endemic areas like Mumbai, screening for newly diagnosed cases at a higher risk of acquiring MDR - TB is necessary, for initiating appropriate and timely treatment, to prevent its further spread. Objective: To assess risk factors associated with MDR - TB among Category I, new sputum smear-positive cases, at the onset of therapy. Materials and Methods: The study applied an unmatched case - control design for 514 patients (106 cases with MDR - TB strains and 408 controls with non - MDR - TB strains). The patients were registered with the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) in four selected wards of Mumbai during April 2004 - January 2007. Data were collected through semi - structured interviews and drug susceptibility test results. Results: Multivariate analysis indicated that infection with the Beijing strain (OR = 3.06; 95% C.I. = 1.12 - 8.38; P = 0.029) and female gender (OR = 1.68; 95% C.I. = 1.02 - 2.87; P = 0.042) were significant predictors of MDR-TB at the onset of therapy. Conclusion: The study provides a starting point to further examine the usefulness of these risk factors as screening tools in identifying individuals with MDR-TB, in settings where diagnostic and treatment facilities for MDR-TB are limited.
  3 12,898 1,325
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Performance of audio-assisted confidential voting interview for assessment of sexual behavior among young adults in Chandigarh Union Territory
Satya Ranjan Lenka, Jarnail Singh Thakur, Prabhat Jha, Rajesh Kumar
January-March 2011, 55(1):30-33
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.82542  PMID:21727678
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chandigarh Union Territory to evaluate the performance of an audio-assisted confidential voting interview (AVI), for assessing the sexual behavior among young adults aged 20 - 34 years. Using systematic random sampling 625 males and 630 females were interviewed alternately, either by AVI or by face-to-face interview (FFI). More men revealed having sex with men in AVI (2.6%) than FFI (0.6%) (P 0.06). Women reported having sex with non-regular partners more often in AVI (4.8%) compared to FFI (0.3%) (P < 0.001). AVI performed better than FFI for eliciting sensitive sexual behaviors.
  3 2,100 172
COMMENTARY
Sanitation: The hygienic means of promoting health
Madhumita Dobe, AK Sur, BB Biswas
January-March 2011, 55(1):49-51
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.82557  PMID:21727683
  2 2,629 401
EDITORIAL
Evidence-Based preventive interventions for targeting under-nutrition in the Indian context
Sandip Kumar Ray
January-March 2011, 55(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.82531  PMID:21727673
  2 5,270 761
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
A mercury free health care organization: A must
Ritesh Singh, Neeti Rustagi
January-March 2011, 55(1):52-53
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.82559  PMID:21727684
  2 1,421 191
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Geriatric health: Need to make it an essential element of primary health care
Sunil Agrawal, Jayant Deo, AK Verma, Atul Kotwal
January-March 2011, 55(1):25-29
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.82540  PMID:21727677
Within the next few decades, we will see an extraordinary increase in the number of older people worldwide. The public health benefit of preventive medicine in old age comes from the compression of the time spent in dependency to a minimum. A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the morbidity profile of the geriatric population in a rural area of Maharashtra. A total of 214 subjects, of age 60 years and above, were examined. Data were collected by structured interviews and clinical and laboratory examinations. Out of the total of 214 subjects, 190 were suffering from some or the other diseases and the major morbidities were visual (56%), musculoskeletal (38.3%), respiratory (32.7%), and hypertension (28%). Anemia was present in 62.6%, 5.61% had Diabetes Mellitus and 22.5% were found to be overweight. The average morbidity load was 2.61. The rising morbidities clearly showed that a regular, complete health checkup of the elderly should be embedded in the essential elements of the Primary Health Care. This would reduce the morbidity, improve the quality of life, and facilitate 'Active Aging'.
  1 2,875 641
Prevalence of substance use among male adolescents in an urban slum area of Karimnagar district, Andhra Pradesh
Prashant R Kokiwar, Gopal Rao S Jogdand
January-March 2011, 55(1):42-45
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.82550  PMID:21727681
In recent years substance use has increased greatly throughout the world. Adolescence is the critical period when the first initiation of substance use takes place. Interventions at the adolescent age are effective to bring about lifestyle modifications. A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out among 260 randomly selected adolescents in an urban slum area, with the objective of studying the prevalence and determinants of substance use among adolescents. The adolescent age group was selected as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) (10 - 19 years). The overall prevalence of substance use was 32.7%. About 31% initiated substance use at 13 - 15 years of age, and the reason was peer pressure in 52.9%. Education of the study subject, education of parents, and substance use by parents and by peers were significantly associated with substance use. Children and parents should be educated to prevent substance use. There was a need to change the social environment.
  1 3,826 635
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Validity of results obtained from thirty clusters on "prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders" drawn from a large state in India
Umesh Kapil, Padam Singh
January-March 2011, 55(1):53-54
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.82560  PMID:21727685
  - 1,073 168
Authors' reply
Chandrakant S Pandav, P Krishnamurthy, R Sankar, Kapil Yadav, C Palanivel, MG Karmarkar
January-March 2011, 55(1):55-56
  - 770 101
Authors' Reply
Himanshu Negandhi, Kavya Sharma, Sanjay Zodpey
January-March 2011, 55(1):58-58
  - 650 96
OBITUARIES
In Memorium: Dr. A. K. Sharma

January-March 2011, 55(1):59-59
  - 649 75
In Memorium: Prof. J. P. Gupta

January-March 2011, 55(1):60-60
  - 496 68
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Structural and qualitative evaluation of microscopy and directly observed treatment centers under revised national tuberculosis control programme in Nanded city of Maharashtra
Vijay Manohar Bhagat, Prakash Laxminarayan Gattani
January-March 2011, 55(1):46-48
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.82553  PMID:21727682
Structural and qualitative evaluation of Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) is important to determine actual status of the programme in the field settings and to uncover the concealed gaps. The present cross-sectional study assessed the infrastructural facilities and quality of services provided through microscopy and directly observed treatment (DOT) centers at Nanded city of Maharashtra. The investigator made on spot observation on the activities at microscopy and DOT centers and assessed the infrastructural facilities using an observational checklist. Expert microbiologist cross checked the microscopy report done by the laboratory technicians. It revealed that retrieval mechanism was not functioning in more than half of the DOT centers. Only 5 DOT providers were trained in RNTCP. Stock of sputum containers, methylene blue, and carbol fuchsin was found to be inadequate at some microscopy centers. Half of the laboratory technicians reported high false positive result in spite of being trained. Improvement of infrastructural and logistic support along with the refreshing training for the workers are needed for effective implementation of RNTCP.
  - 2,066 327
Prevalence and health-seeking behavior of reproductive tract infection/sexually transmitted infections symptomatics: A cross-sectional study of a rural community in the Hooghly district of West Bengal
Amrita Samanta, Santanu Ghosh, Shuvankar Mukherjee
January-March 2011, 55(1):38-41
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.82547  PMID:21727680
A community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in Purushottampur village of the Singur block, Hooghly, using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, to find out the prevalence of RTI / STI symptomatics among the general population aged 15 to 49 years, and to assess their profiles and health-seeking behaviors. Prevalence of (Reproductive tract infection) RTI / STI (Sexually transmitted infections) symptoms in the last 12 months was found to be 13.9 and 13.6% among males and females, respectively. The most common symptom was dysuria and vaginal discharge among males and females, respectively. Almost half of the STI symptomatics (52% male, 50% female) did nothing for their symptoms. Better health-seeking behavior was observed among females. About 9.4% of the males and 47% of the females sought advice from the clinic / hospital / health workers. Strengthening of activities of the existing national program among the general population is needed to build a positive health-seeking behavior that will ensure success of the syndromic management of RTI / STI.
  - 3,654 659
A study on visual outcomes after cataract surgery with intraocular lens implants at the rural health training center, Paithan, Maharashtra
Vijay K Domple, Arvind V Gaikwad, Hrishikesh A Khadilkar, Mohan K Doibale, Ashok P Kulkarni
January-March 2011, 55(1):22-24
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.82539  PMID:21727676
A study was conducted to assess the visual outcomes of patients after cataract surgery with intraocular lens implants with reference to visual acuity (VA) and visual function (VF) and to assess patient satisfaction with surgical outcome. The retrospective study was carried out using operation theatre records at the Rural Health Training Centre (RHTC), Paithan, during 2007. Out of 819 cataract surgery patients operated in 2007 a total of 50 were selected randomly. Door-to-door visits were paid by investigator and multipurpose worker to previously operated patients for VA examination and to fill predesigned questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS 17.0 Version; 50% patients had VA in fair vision range of <6/18-6/60 and 52% showed the VF in the range of 76-100. Of the 32 satisfied patients, majority were in the age group 70-79 years. The patients with good visual outcomes achieved after surgery would act as pamphlets for the community.
  - 2,330 329
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