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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale: Updating income ranges for the year 2012
Neeta Kumar, Neeru Gupta, Jugal Kishore
January-March 2012, 56(1):103-104
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.96988  
  73 45,114 4,717
REVIEW ARTICLES
Tobacco Control Policies in India: Implementation and Challenges
Jagdish Kaur, DC Jain
July-September 2011, 55(3):220-227
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.89941  PMID:22089690
Tobacco use is a major public health challenge in India with 275 million adults consuming different tobacco products. Government of India has taken various initiatives for tobacco control in the country. Besides enacting comprehensive tobacco control legislation (COTPA, 2003), India was among the first few countries to ratify WHO the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) in 2004. The National Tobacco Control Programme was piloted during the 11 th Five Year Plan which is under implementation in 42 districts of 21 states in the country. The advocacy for tobacco control by the civil society and community led initiatives has acted in synergy with tobacco control policies of the Government. Although different levels of success have been achieved by the states, non prioritization of tobacco control at the sub national level still exists and effective implementation of tobacco control policies remains largely a challenge.
  37 41,732 3,405
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Validity of verbal autopsy in determining causes of adult deaths
R Kumar, JS Thakur, BT Rao, M M.C Singh, S P.S Bhatia
April-June 2006, 50(2):90-94
PMID:17191410
A verbal autopsy (VA) questionnaire, which had an open-ended description of the deceased's illness followed by a series of close-ended questions on specific symptoms and signs, was used by three trained field workers to interview relatives of the deceased who had died in a Chandigarh hospital in previous year. The sensitivity and specificity of the cause of death assigned by physician from the verbal autopsy was calculated against the cause of death derived from the hospital records. Of the 262 verbal autopsies, 60% were males and 23% belonged to rural area. Specificity of VA cause of death was high (>95%) for all broad cause groups except cardiovascular (79%) diseases. Sensitivity was highest for injuries (85%) and it was in the range of 60% to 65% for circulatory diseases, neoplasms, and infectious diseases. Sensitivity was low (20% to 40%) for respiratory, digestive and endocrine diseases. Cause specific proportionate mortality for major cause groups by the VA were statistically similar to the causes of deaths derived from the hospital records (p>0.05). Therefore, VA can be used for determining causes of adult deaths.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  26 408 295
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Health impact of supplying safe drinking water containing fluoride below permissible level on flourosis patients in a fluoride-endemic rural area of West Bengal
Kunal Kanti Majumdar
October-December 2011, 55(4):303-308
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.92411  PMID:22298140
Background: The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days) and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. Objective: To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water from supplied domestic filters and community filter with fluoride concentration below the permissible limit. The data obtained were compared with the collected data from the baseline survey. Results: The prevalence of signs of dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis was 66.7%, 4.8-23.8%, and 9.5-38.1%, respectively, among the study population. Withdrawal of source(s) identified for fluoride by providing domestic and community filters supplying safe water led to 9.6% decrease in manifestation of dental fluorosis, 2.4-14.3% decrease in various manifestations of skeletal fluorosis, and 7.1-21.5% decrease in various non-skeletal manifestations within 5 months. Following repeated motivation of participants during visit, there was also 9.7-38.1% decrease in the usage of fluoride containing toothpaste, and 9.8-45.3% and 7.3-11.9% decrease in the consumption of black lemon tea and tobacco, respectively, which are known sources of fluoride ingestion in our body and have an effect on the occurrence of various manifestations of fluorosis following drinking of safe water from domestic and community filters. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis was found among the study population. Withdrawal of source(s) identified for fluoride by supplying domestic and community filters, dietary restriction, and other nutritional interventions led to decrease in manifestation of the three types of fluorosis within 5 months.
  26 4,600 914
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Tobacco use among youth and adults in member countries of South-East Asia region: Review of findings from surveys under the global tobacco surveillance system
Dhirendra N Sinha, Krishna M Palipudi, Italia Rolle, Samira Asma, Sonam Rinchen
July-September 2011, 55(3):169-176
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.89946  PMID:22089684
Background: This paper examines the prevalence of current tobacco use among youth and adults in selected member countries of the South-East Asia Region using the data from school and household-based surveys included in the Global Tobacco Surveillance System. Materials and Methods: Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data (years 2007-2009) were used to examine current tobacco use prevalence among youth, whereas Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data (years 2009-2010) were used to examine the prevalence among adults. GYTS is a school-based survey of students aged 13-15, using a two-stage cluster sample design, and GATS is a household survey of adults age 15 and above using a multi-stage stratified cluster design. Both surveys used a standard protocol for the questionnaire, data collection and analysis. Results: Prevalence of current tobacco use among students aged 13-15 varied from 5.9% in Bangladesh to 56.5% in Timor-Leste, and the prevalence among adults aged 15 and above was highest in Bangladesh (43.3%), followed by India (34.6%) and Thailand (27.2%). Reported prevalence was significantly higher among males than females for adults and youth in all countries except Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Timor-Leste. Current use of tobacco other than manufactured cigarettes was notably higher than current cigarette smoking among youth aged 13-15 years in most countries of the Region, while the same was observed among adults in Bangladesh, India and Thailand, with most women in those countries, and 49% of men in India, using smokeless tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco use among youth and adults in member countries of the region is high and the pattern of tobacco consumption is complex. Tobacco products other than cigarettes are commonly used by youth and adults, as those products are relatively cheaper than cigarettes and affordable for almost all segments of the population. As a result, use of locally produced smoked and smokeless tobacco products is high in the region. Generating reliable data on tobacco use and key tobacco control measures at regular intervals is essential to better understand and respond with effective tobacco control intervention.
  26 7,647 1,071
REVIEW ARTICLES
Smokeless tobacco: A major public health problem in the SEA region: A review
Prakash C Gupta, Cecily S Ray, Dhirendra N Sinha, Poonam K Singh
July-September 2011, 55(3):199-209
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.89948  PMID:22089688
Smokeless tobacco use is on the upswing in some parts of the world, including parts of SEAR. It is therefore important to monitor this problem and understand the possible consequences on public health. Material for this review was obtained from documents and data of the World Health Organization, co-authors, colleagues, and searches on key words in PubMed and on Google. Smokeless tobacco use in SEAR, as betel quid with tobacco, declined with increased marketing of cigarettes from the early twentieth century. Smokeless tobacco use began to increase in the 1970s in South Asia, with the marketing of new products made from areca nut and tobacco and convenient packaging. As a consequence, oral precancerous conditions and cancer incidence in young adults have increased significantly. Thailand's successful policies in reducing betel quid use through school health education from the 1920s and in preventing imports of smokeless tobacco products from 1992 are worth emulating by many SEAR countries. India, the largest manufacturing country of smokeless tobacco in the Region, is considering ways to regulate its production. Best practices require the simultaneous control of smokeless and smoking forms of tobacco. Governments in SEAR would do well to adopt strong measures now to control this problem.
  25 9,752 1,102
Influence of recall period on estimates of diarrhoea morbidity in infants in rural Tamilnadu.
R Ramakrishnan, T Venkatarao, PK Koya, P Kamaraj
October-December 1999, 43(4):136-9
PMID:11243060
Data collected on 689 infants, in a study to assess the incidence of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections during infancy, is used here to quantify the extent of under-reporting in diarrhoea morbidity surveys. The study area consisted of two contiguous primary health centres in Villupuram health unit district in Tamil Nadu, South India. Each day of infancy was assigned a recal period and proportion of diarrhoeal days for various recall period computed. The proportion of diarrhoea was 11.3%, 12.0% and 11.2% for zero, one and two days of recall period, respectively, after which the proportion decreased. The under-reporting of diarrhoea was approximately 15%, 26% and 45% with three, six and 7-13 days of recall period, respectively. As there is considerable under-reporting of diarrhoea morbidity when recall period exceeds three days, it would be best to collect information on diarrhoea at least twice a week in diarrhoeal morbidity surveys.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  19 348 0
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of very early skin to skin contact on success at breastfeeding and preventing early hypothermia in neonates
Smita Srivastava, Amit Gupta, Anjoo Bhatnagar, Sanjeev Dutta
January-March 2014, 58(1):22-26
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.128160  PMID:24748353
Context: Birth and immediate postpartum period pose many challenges for the newborn. The neonatal mortality rates are high in India, whereas the breastfeeding rates are still low. Hence, need exists for a simple and easily applicable intervention, which may counter these challenges. Aims: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of very early skin-to-skin contact (SSC), in term babies with their mothers, on success of breastfeeding and neonatal well-being. Settings and Design: Randomized control trial conducted over 2 years' period in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Healthy babies delivered normally were included. Very early SSC between mothers and their newborns was initiated in the study group. We studied effective suckling (using modified infant breastfeeding assessment tool [IBFAT]), breastfeeding status at 6 weeks, maternal satisfaction, thermal regulation, baby's weight and morbidity. Statistical Analysis: T-test, Pearson Chi-square test and non-parametric Mann-Whitney test were used through relevant Windows SPSS software version 16.0. Results: We observed that SSC contributed to better suckling competence as measured by IBFAT score (P < 0.0001). More babies in the SSC group were exclusively breastfed at first follow-up visit (P = 0.002) and at 6 weeks (P < 0.0001). SSC led to higher maternal satisfaction rates, better temperature gain in immediate post-partum period, lesser weight loss was at discharge and at first follow-up (all P < 0.0001) and lesser morbidity than the study group (P = 0.006). Conclusion: Very early SSC is an effective intervention that improves baby's suckling competence, maternal satisfaction, breastfeeding rates and temperature control and weight patterns.
  19 17,712 1,495
Descriptive epidemiology of acute respiratory infections among under five children in an urban slum area.
AK Sharma, DC Reddy, RR Dwivedi
October-December 1999, 43(4):156-9
PMID:11243065
A study was conducted in Sunderpur, Varanasi to study the magnitude of the problem of acute Respiratory Infections among under five children in an urban slum and the clinical profile of it in order to understand the pattern of disease presentation for identifying methods of early diagnosis and timely intervention. 150 under five children were selected by stratified random sampling method and were observed for 52 weeks at weekly interval to record the illnesses. In total 661 episodes were observed in 5623 child-weeks of observation giving an episode rate of 6.11 per child per year. ARI accounted for 67% of all morbidities. Mean duration of all the episodes taken together was 8.15 + 5.44 days. Majority of the episodes (88.96%) were confined to the Upper Respiratory Tract only. Most commonly occurring clinical features were rhinorrhea, nasal stuffiness and cough. 61.4% of all the episodes terminated within seven days, and only 26.2% continued for two weeks.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  18 416 0
Socio-economic factors associated with malaria in a tribal area of Orissa, India.
SK Sharma, P Pradhan, DM Padhi
July-September 2001, 45(3):93-8
PMID:11917328
Study on the socio-economic factors and human behaviour in a cross-section of tribal communities in Sundargarh district, Orissa revealed that poor socioeconomic status and socio-cultural factors play important role in maintaining high degree of malaria transmission. Human behaviour such as location of hamlets, type of housing, sleeping habits, outdoor activities after dusk, poor knowledge about the disease and treatment seeking behaviour are of great significance as determinants of malaria transmission. All these factors need to be considered before planning community health programme. Estimation of economic loss due to malaria showed an average loss of 8.96 mandays per malaria patient with an average loss of 3.84 mandays to other family members. Mean total loss per malaria episode comes to Rs.334.91. The study showed that malaria is one of the major disease affecting the tribals to the greatest extent and putting a lot of burden on the economic upliftment of these communities.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  18 507 0
Beyond medical model of STD intervention--lessons from Sonagachi.
S Jana, S Singh
July-September 1995, 39(3):125-31
PMID:8690494
Sonagachi, a red-light area in Calcutta has experienced a successful STD control program. Social issues behind this success and importance of non biological parameters to evaluate the success of the project are highlighted.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  17 396 0
Teenage primigravidae : a comparative study.
V Verma, KB Das
April-June 1997, 41(2):52-5
PMID:9988978
A review of history sheets of obstetric cases recorded in a district hospital in 1992 was done to compare the obstetric outcome in 200 teenage first pregnancies (Study group) with that in Control group i.e. 20 years to 29 years. It revealed that incidence of complications of pregnancy like anaemia, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) and preterm labour were significantly higher among teenage mothers. The normal mode of delivery was commoner in teenagers (82.5%) in comparison to control group (76.5%), probably because of higher number of low birth weight babies. The fetal outcome was significantly worse in teenage mothers with high incidence of perinatal mortality (8%) and low birth weight babies (35%). There was not a single newborn with birthweight above 3500 gms, in teenage group, whereas, control group had 5 babies (2.5%) in the category.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  17 383 0
BRIEF RESEARCH ARTICLES
Non-adherence to life-style modification and its factors among type 2 diabetic patients
Shirin Jahan Mumu, Farzana Saleh, Ferdous Ara, Fadia Afnan, Liaquat Ali
January-March 2014, 58(1):40-44
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.128165  PMID:24748356
Non-adherence to preventive and therapeutic life-style recommendations among patients with diabetes is special challenge in the management of these patients. This study aimed to measure the proportion of non-adherence to life-style modification and factors associated with these among a group of Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic patients. Under an analytical cross-sectional design 374 type 2 diabetic patients (age >20 years), diagnosed for at least 1 year, were selected from different health care centers operated by the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: Diet (88%), exercise (25%), routine blood glucose testing (32%), foot care (70%), smoking (6%) and betel quid chewing habit (25%). Binary logistic regression suggests that higher education group (P = 0.013), rural area (P = 0.013) and attendance to diabetes education classes (P = 0.043) showed good adherence to diet and non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.014), older age (P = 0.037) are associated to non-adherence to exercise. Unemployed patients showed more non-adherence to blood glucose testing (P = 0.045) than others. Non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.037) and business occupation group (P = 0.039) showed significant association to smoking and betel quid intake habit respectively.
  17 5,893 1,019
Influence of cigarette smoking on Vitamin C, glutathione and lipid peroxidation status.
KK Banerjee, P Marimuthu, A Sarkar, RN Chaudhuri
January-March 1998, 42(1):20-3
PMID:10389502
There has been a growing interest during recent years in the role of free radicals and lipid-peroxidation at tissue-level for the causation of cancer and other age-related diseases like atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, cataract etc. Free radicals and increased lipid peroxidation play a significant role for causation of human diseases by oxidative damage and functional degeneration of the tissues. Vitamin C, a well-known dietary antioxidant, and other enzymatic antioxidants like glutathione can protect the lipids of lipoproteins and other biomembranes against peroxidative damage by intercepting oxidants before they can attack the tissues. But cigarette smoking was found to affect the antioxidant protective action of Vitamin C, glutathione etc. A group of adult male smokers in this study were found to have lowered Vitamin 'C' & glutathione levels, but increased lipid-peroxide levels in their blood. Thus the increased pathogenicity of the smoking may also be due to indirect biochemical effect of enhanced oxidative stress by increased lipid-peroxidation and lowered Vitamin C & other antioxidants at tissue-level.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  16 405 0
Acute respiratory infections in children : a community based longitudinal study in south India.
D Acharya, KS Prasanna, S Nair, RS Rao
January-March 2003, 47(1):7-13
PMID:14723289
A community based longitudinal study was conducted in Malpe, a coastal village of Udupi district, Karnataka state, to investigate acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children. A cohort of 91 children under 3 years of age were followed up for 1 year, leading to 2047 fortnightly observation. On an average every child had 11.3 months of follow up. The overall incidence of ARI was 6.42 episodes per child per year. On an average each episode lasted for 5.06 days. Mean duration of ARI during one year was 32.5 days per child. Most of the ARI episodes in children (91.3%) were of simple Cough & Cold (no pneumonia). However, 8.2% developed pneumonia and only 0.51% had severe pneumonia. Incidence of ARI was almost same in male and female children. There was no significant difference in incidence among various age groups. But the incidence of pneumonia was significantly higher among infants (p<0.00002). Children of poor housing with smoke producing conditions suffered more frequently (p,002).
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  16 484 0
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Updating income ranges for Kuppuswamy's socio-economic status scale for the year 2014
Sukhvinder Singh Oberoi
April-June 2015, 59(2):156-157
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.157540  PMID:26021657
  16 39,064 3,183
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Study of needle stick injuries among health care workers at a tertiary care hospital
S Salelkar, DD Motghare, MS Kulkarni, FS Vaz
January-March 2010, 54(1):18-20
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.70540  PMID:20859044
A cross-sectional study was conducted among health care workers at a tertiary care hospital in Goa to study the problem of needle stick injuries. A structured questionnaire was used to interview the study participants at their work place. Participants were asked to recall needle stick injuries in the preceding 12 months. Factors such as work experience, type of procedure, action taken following injury etc were also studied. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS software. Around 34.8% (200/575) of the Health care workers had experienced a needle stick injury in the last one year. Needle stick injuries were equally distributed across different work experience periods. Hollow bore needles were responsible for 77.5% of needle stick injuries followed by suturing needles (19.2%). As far as use of personal protection was concerned only 58% of the health care workers were wearing gloves at the time of the injury. There is therefore an urgent need at the hospital level to have a uniform needle stick injuries policy covering safe work practices, safe disposal of sharps, procedures in event of needle stick injury, training including pre-employment training, monitoring and evaluation of needle stick injuries and procedures for reporting needle stick injuries.
  16 7,624 1,230
Relationship of national highway with injecting drug abuse and HIV in rural Manipur, India.
K Sarkar, S Panda, N Das, S Sarkar
April-June 1997, 41(2):49-51
PMID:9988977
Earlier study reported that about 1% of general population or urban Manipur was injecting drug users (IDUs). A study was conducted to observe the IDU prevalence in rural Manipur and the role of national highway (NH) in determining the IDU prevalence if any. It was also aimed to study the HIV prevalence among IDUs of different villages. Villages were startified in to 3 categories based on distance and communication facilities from the national highway, which cuts across the villages to the neighboring state, Nagaland. Villages close to NH had the highest IDU prevalence of 1.3% and remote villages had the least prevalence of 0.2% whereas villages in between the above mentioned two groups had a prevalence of 0.9%. It was surprisingly observed that HIV was uniformly distributed among the IDUs of all villages and ranged from 50-51%. This indicates that IDU prevalence at distance is predominantly determined by the presence of drug trafficking route/s like national highway whereas HIV prevalence is mainly determined by the needle sharing behaviour of IDUs.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  15 355 0
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Risk for oral cancer associated to smoking, smokeless and oral dip products
Abdoul Hossain Madani, Madhurima Dikshit, Debanshu Bhaduri
January-March 2012, 56(1):57-60
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.96977  
Oral cancer is one of the most common life threatening diseases in India. Tobacco and alcohol are considered to be the most risk factors for oral cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the association of tobacco and poly-ingredient oral dip products with oral cancer. A case-control study of 350 cases and 350 controls, over a period of 19 months, between February 2005 and September 2006 was carried out in Pune, India. The self-reported information about the consumption of tobacco, poly-ingredient oral dip products, alcohol, dietary habits and demographic status were collected by a researcher made questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify the risk of substances abuse. The frequency of smoking, smokeless and oral dip products in cases were significantly higher than controls (P < 0.0001). Among smoking types, bidi (P < 0.0001, OR = 4.1 95% CI = 2.4 - 6.9), of smokeless types, chewing tobacco (P < 0.0001, OR = 8.3, 95% CI = 5.4 - 13.0) and mishiri (P < 0.0001, OR = 3.3, 95% CI =2.1 - 5.4), and of oral dip products, consumption of gutkha (P < 0.0001, OR = 12.8, 95% CI =7.0 - 23.7) and supari (P < 0.0001, OR = 6.6, 95% CI =3.0 - 14.8) indicated strong association with oral cancer upon adjustment. This study provides strong evidence that gutkha, supari -areca nut- chewing tobacco (tobacco flakes), bidi smoking and mishiri (tobacco powder, which applied as a tooth and gum cleaner) are independent risk for oral cancer.
  15 7,920 1,165
SPECIAL ARTICLES
Positive deviance - The West Bengal experience
P Mustaphi, M Dobe
October-December 2005, 49(4):207-213
PMID:16479899
There are 11.1 million children in the age group 0-6 years in West Bengal. Of these, every second child under 3 years of age is underweight, more than four out of ten are stunted, and one out of eight are wasted. The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme in West Bengal has 355 operational projects covering 53,064 operational anganwadi centers reaching out to more than four million beneficiaries-approximately half of whom are children in the age group 0-3 years. The Department of Women and Child Development (DWCD) is trying to identify and replicate innovative, community-based, sustainable approaches. One such innovative initiative has been the " Keno Parbo Na " project. based on the Positive Deviance (PD) approach which aims to reduce and prevent malnutrition among children under 3 years of age by focusing on local solutions and resources, local behaviors and practices. Behavior change is emphasized through participatory learning and community mobilization. The pilot phase of the project has been completed in two districts [Four blocks (2 in each District) and 32 villages/AWCs (8 in each block)] of West Bengal (Murshidabad and South 24 Parganas). The analysis of the project activities so far reveals that the issue of malnutrition and its prevention is now visible in the villages covered. Acceptance of desirable behavioral practices is observed within the community. A steady reduction in the moderate and severe level of malnutrition was noted across four districts. A general preponderance of girl children was noted at the entry stage indicating higher levels of severe and moderate malnutrition among girl children to begin with but also suggesting PD as an important strategy in reducing the gender gap in malnutrition. The boys gain in terms of nutritional status faster than the girls so in the intermediate phase malnourished girls are more in number. However, by the sixth / ninth round, as the malnutrition levels decline substantially, the gender gap tends to close.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  15 389 316
Water quality and dental fluorosis.
S Chandra, VP Thergaonkar, R Sharma
January-March 1981, 25(1):47-51
PMID:7262990
Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  14 98 0
Immunization coverage and the knowledge and practice of mothers regarding immunization in rural area.
MC Singh, CM Badole, MP Singh
July-September 1994, 38(3):103-7
PMID:7774970
One hundred and thirty mothers in the age group (15-44) years and 142 children aged (12-59) months were selected by cluster sampling method from nine villages in Wardha district. Out of this 100 mothers and 122 children could be contacted for evaluation of immunization coverage and assessing maternal knowledge and practice regarding immunization. 52.5% children were fully immunized and 45.1% were partially immunized. Vaccine coverage for B.C.G. and primary doses of DPT/OPV was 95.9% and above 85% respectively. It was 57.4% for measles and 63.04% for booster dose of DPT/OPV. Drop-out rate from second to third dose of DPT/OPV was 5.3% and from third to booster dose was 36.96%. Mothers had a fair knowledge regarding need for immunization but a poor knowledge regarding the diseases prevented and doses of the vaccines. Commonest side reactions reported were fever (36%) and pain at injection site (33%). Contraindications listed by mothers were mild cold (41%), mild fever (24%) or loose stools (14%). Health workers were the major source of information and 76% knew the use and maintenance of immunization cards.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  14 528 0
Awareness of AIDS among school children in Haryana.
AK Aggarwal, R Kumar
April-June 1996, 40(2):38-45
PMID:9090903
The study is aimed to assess the existing level of knowledge of school children of 9th and 10th classes about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Three high schools in an urban area and three in the villages of a district of North India were included in the study. A pretested closed-ended questionnaire was administered to 336 students available. Overall level of knowledge about AIDS was found to be high. However, there were significant differences in knowledge among rural-urban and male-female students. There were some misconceptions in knowledge regarding transmission, prognosis and prevention. Books and media were the most common sources of information. Most of the students wanted to learn more about AIDS. Since overall knowledge levels were high we conclude that AIDS education should concentrate on clarifying areas of misconceptions.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  14 381 0
Integrated Child Development Services scheme (ICDS) and its impact on nutritional status of children in India and recent initiatives.
U Kapil, R Pradhan
January-March 1999, 43(1):21-5
PMID:11243083
Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme is the largest national programme for the promotion of the mother and child health and their development in the world. The beneficiaries include children below 6 years, pregnant and lactating mothers, and other women in the age group of 15 to 44 years. The package of services provided by the ICDS scheme includes supplementary nutrition, immunization, health check-up, referral services, nutrition and health education, and pre-school education. The distribution of iron and folic acid tablets and megadose of vitamin A is also undertaken, to prevent iron deficiency anaemia and xerophthalmia respectively. The scheme services are rendered essentially through the Anganwadi worker (AWW) at a village centre called "Anganwadi". The ICDS had led to (i) reduction in prevalence of severe grades of malnutrition and (ii) better utilization of services of national nutritional anaemia prophylaxis programme and the national programme for prevention of nutritional blindness due to vitamin A deficiency by ICDS beneficiaries. The ICDS scheme is being modified continuously to strengthen the programme.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  14 775 0
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Seasonal variation in prevalence of hypertension: Implications for interpretation
Pragya Sinha, DK Taneja, NP Singh, Renuka Saha
January-March 2010, 54(1):7-10
DOI:10.4103/0019-557X.70537  PMID:20859042
Objectives: To study seasonal variation in prevalence of hypertension. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the year 2006, in Gokulpuri, an urban slum located in eastern part of Delhi. 275 females 18-40 years of age were examined in summer. Blood pressure was measured in two seasons, summer and winter. Nutritional status of each individual was assessed by BMI. Results: The prevalence of hypertension based on SBP was 12.72% in summer which increased to 22.22% in winter. The prevalence of hypertension, using DBP criteria increased to more than double (summer vs. winter, 11.27% vs. 26.59%, P< 0.001). Overall prevalence of hypertension (SBP≥140 or DBP≥90 mm of Hg) was 1.9 times during winter compared to summer (P<0.001). Greater increase in prevalence of hypertension during winter among older females and underweight as well as normal females was observed. Conclusion: Significant increase in prevalence of hypertension during winter compared to summer indicates need for considering this factor while comparing prevalence reported in different studies as well as interpreting the surveillance data based on repeat surveys.
  14 3,491 558
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