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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 61  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 188-193

Dietary patterns with special reference to calcium intake in 2–16-year-old Urban Western Indian children


1 Scientist, Growth and Endocrine Unit, Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 Deputy Director, Growth and Endocrine Unit, Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India
3 Consultant Paediatric Endocrinologist, Growth and Endocrine Unit, Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India
4 Honarary Scientist, Growth and Endocrine Unit, Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India
5 Senior Lecturer, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Central Manchester University Hospitals, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, Oxford Road, Manchester, UK

Correspondence Address:
Anuradha V Khadilkar
Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute, Jehangir Hospital, 32, Sassoon Road, Pune - 411 001, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_85_16

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Background: It is important to establish good dietary practices in childhood that promote adequate calcium intake throughout life and reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures in later life. Objectives: To assess dietary patterns of 2–16-year-old children with special reference to calcium and suggest strategies and develop recipes suitable to identified patterns to increase dietary calcium intake. Methods: We studied 220 schoolchildren (2–16 years) around Pune city, India. The study duration was June 2013–July 2014. Height and weight were measured using standard protocols. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-h diet recall on 3 nonconsecutive days. Dietary patterns were derived by cluster analysis in two age groups; children (2–9 years) and adolescents (10–16 years). As per the dietary patterns, calcium-rich recipes were developed. Results: Among children, “rice-pulse” (RP) and “wheat, milk, and milk products” (WM) patterns were observed. Among adolescents, RP, “wheat, milk, and bakery” (WMB), and “mixed food” patterns were observed. Children who consumed “WM” and “WMB” patterns had greater intake of calcium (P < 0.05) than children consuming other dietary patterns. The daily calcium intake of whole group was 53% of the recommended dietary allowance. From this, 30% calcium came from milk. Each serve of the developed recipe provided an average of 254 mg of calcium. Conclusion: Majority of children had cereal-pulse-based dietary patterns. By replacing foods from existing dietary patterns with calcium-rich foods, the dietary calcium content may be increased in a sustainable manner.


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