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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 58  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 241-248

Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of primary headache disorders: results of a population-based survey from Bangalore, India


1 Department of Epidemiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), India
2 Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), India
3 Department of Biostatistics, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), India
4 Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology; Norwegian National Headache Center, St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway
5 Norwegian National Headache Center, St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; Department of Neuroscience, Imperial College London, London, UK

Correspondence Address:
Gopalakrishna Gururaj
Department of Epidemiology, Center for Public Health, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru - 560 029, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0019-557X.146280

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Background: Headache disorders are common and burdensome throughout the world, placing high demand on health care services. Good information on their prevalence and distribution through sectors of the population are a prerequisite for planning interventions and organizing services, but unavailable for India. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of headache disorders in Karnataka State and establish important sociodemographic associations. Materials and Methods: Using a door to door survey technique, amongst 2997 households, 2329 individuals were interviewed with a validated structured questionnaire by randomly sampling one adult member (aged 18-65 years) from eligible households in urban (n = 1226) and rural (n = 1103) areas of Bangalore, during the period April 2009 and January 2010. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square, odds ratio (OR), and logistic regression. Results: The 1-year prevalence of headache was 63.9% (62.0% when adjusted for age, gender and habitation) and 1-day prevalence (headache on the day prior to the survey) was 5.9%. Prevalence was higher in the age groups of 18-45 years, among females (OR = 2.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.9-2.7) and those in rural areas. Prevalence was higher in rural (71.2 [68.4-73.8]) than in urban areas (57.3 [54.5-60.1]) even after adjusting for gender. The proportion of days lost to headache from paid work was 1.1%, while overall productivity loss (from both paid and household work) was 2.8%. Conclusions: Headache disorders are a major health problem in India with significant burden. It requires systematic efforts to organize effective services to be able to reach a large number of people in urban and rural India. Education of physicians and other health-care workers, and the public should be a pillar of such efforts.


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