Users Online: 845 Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 

 

Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
     

 Table of Contents  
BRIEF RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 57  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 96-99  

Perception of personal risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency viral infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome among people attending outpatient clinics in a teaching hospital of Nigeria


1 Consultant Surgeon, Department of Surgery, Urology Unit, University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
2 Consultant Paediatrician, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
3 Consultant Family Physician, Department of Family Medicine, University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
4 Consultant Obstetrician and Gynaecologist, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication15-Jul-2013

Correspondence Address:
S A Adegoke
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State
Nigeria
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0019-557X.114996

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic is on the increase with the highest burden in sub-Saharan Africa. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 to assess the knowledge, self-perception of risk of contracting HIV infection and risky sexual practices among patients attending some out-patient clinics at the University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. The knowledge on the modes of transmission and methods of prevention of HIV was high. Although, 53.0% of the study participants perceived themselves not to be at risk of contracting HIV infection, 80.6% were engaged in risky sexual practices within a year preceding the study. Significantly more participants with multiple sexual partners, past and present history of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) perceived themselves not to be at risk (P= 0.001, 0.008 and 0.001 respectively). Effective strategies must therefore be developed, to enhance risk-perception since poor risk-perception is known to mitigate behavioral change.

Keywords: Knowledge, Perception, Practices, HIV/AIDS


How to cite this article:
Adegun P T, Adegoke S A, Solomon O S, Ade-Ojo I P. Perception of personal risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency viral infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome among people attending outpatient clinics in a teaching hospital of Nigeria. Indian J Public Health 2013;57:96-9

How to cite this URL:
Adegun P T, Adegoke S A, Solomon O S, Ade-Ojo I P. Perception of personal risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency viral infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome among people attending outpatient clinics in a teaching hospital of Nigeria. Indian J Public Health [serial online] 2013 [cited 2017 Nov 19];57:96-9. Available from: http://www.ijph.in/text.asp?2013/57/2/96/114996

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection remains a global public health issue with attendant socio-economic and medical consequences. [1] Studies have shown that about 95% of the people living with the HIV reside in the developing countries, where the prevalence rates among adults is about 20-30%. [2] According to the World Health Organization, out of an estimated 33.4 million people infected with HIV globally, about 22.5 million of them are living in the sub-Saharan Africa. [3] Furthermore, about two-third of the newly infected resides in Africa and the likelihood of adults in sub-Sahara Africa becoming HIV infected is 10 times greater than for an adult in North America and 20 times more than an adult in Western Europe. [3],[4] Nigeria alone account for about 10% of all cases of HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the world, with the pandemic having a serious effect on the reproductive health of women. [5],[6]

Globally, about 80% of all HIV infections are transmitted through sexual intercourse, although mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) accounts for about 95% of pediatric HIV infections. Of the several international and local efforts to curtail the spread of HIV/AIDS, behavior change appears to be the most effective way. [7] Among the various methods of achieving behavioral change, perceived threat of contracting the disease/condition has been reported to produce the best result. [7] Available data in our environment have found that knowledge about mode of transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS infection is good. [8],[9],[10] Furthermore, previous studies have shown that there is a high risky sexual behavior and low service demand among many people in sub-Saharan Africa. [8],[9] Unfortunately, studies have shown that many people tend to believe in their own invulnerability to AIDS, a phenomenon widely referred to as optimism bias. [9],[10] The reasons for such reaction could result from misconception, ignorance, poverty, denial, shame, guilt and silence primarily as a result of stigmatization. [9],[10]

This study was conducted to examine the relationship between our patients' perceived risk of contracting HIV infection and their actual or assessed risk based on some risky sexual practices. We evaluated to what extent do people who think that they are invulnerable to contracting HIV infections engages in risky sexual practices.

This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between January and December, 2008 at the General Out-patients, Urology, Antenatal and Adolescent clinics of the University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria in Nigeria. Patients aged 10 years and above who attended above clinics were enrolled for the study. They were selected by convenience sampling technique after a voluntary written informed consent. Patients who were known to have HIV infection or AIDS were not included in the study. Ethical approval was obtained from the ethical committee. Each participant was interviewed based on pretested structured questionnaire. The questionnaires were self-administered by those who were literate. However, those who were not literate were interviewed by the researchers. Data on socio-economic characteristics such as age, sex, highest level of education, occupation and marital status were recorded. Furthermore, knowledge on the mode of transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS infection, the HIV status and factors that prompted the testing if ever carried out were documented.

For each participant, we (investigators) assessed risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS infection by assessing four main risk factors to contracting HIV/AIDS. These included the number of sexual partners; history of unprotected sex in the last 1 month preceding the study; paying or receiving money for sex; past history of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) and present history of STI symptoms. [8] Those without identifiable risk factor were categorized as having no risk while those with any one of the following: recent history of unprotected sex, paying or receiving money for sex, previous history of STI, one recent STI symptom and two sexual partners were categorized as having little risk. Those with the combination of any of the above or having two or more sexual partners or two or more recent STI symptoms were categorized as having high risk of contracting HIV infection.

Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows (17.0). Frequency distributions of HIV/AIDS knowledge of the participants, self-perceived and assessed risk of contracting HIV infections were computed. The relationship between the two risks of contracting HIV infection (self-perceived and assessed risk) was determined by Chi-squared test.

A total of 592 participants were interviewed comprising of 337 from the GOPD, 103 from the Antenatal clinic, 98 from the Urology clinic and 54 from the Adolescent clinic. Out of them, 40.9% were males with a male: female ratio of 1:1.4. The age of the participants ranged from 10-98 years with mean (±Standard deviation) of 37.9 (16.5) years. Majority of them were young adults i.e., 20-45 years (65%), Christian (92.2%), having secondary school education and above (74.2%) and married (64.2%). By occupation, 38.3% and 23.8% of the respondents were civil servants and students respectively. Of the married participants, 23.2% were in polygamous relationships; 11.6% lived away from their spouses. Also, 4.5% of the married had remarried at least once (ten once, six twice and one person 4 times).

Out of the total participants, 96.1% had heard about HIV/AIDS before the study and 54.1% heard it from mass media. A total of 103 pregnant women (17.4% of the total) participated in the study. Of this, 87 (84.5%) knew that MTCT of HIV infection is a major mode of transmission of the infection to their babies.

Majority of the participants, 314 (53.0%) perceived themselves to be at no risk of contracting HIV infection and significantly more males, young adults, single (non-married) and those with low educational qualification perceived themselves not to be at risk infection [Table 1].
Table 1: The influence of socio-demographic characteristics of the participants on their level of perception to contracting human immunodefi ciency virus infection

Click here to view


In this study, 19.4% of our patients were assessed to have no risk of contracting HIV infections, 37.2% having little risk and 43.1% to have a high risk. Out of 228 participants having 2 or more sexual partners in the last 1 year before the study, 139 (61.0%) had four sexual partners [Table 2]. Considering association between self-perceived risk of contracting HIV infection and the risky sexual practices, significantly more participants with multiple sexual partners, past and present history of STI did not perceive themselves to be at risk.
Table 2: Association between perceived and assessed risk of contracting human immunodefi ciency virus infection by the participants

Click here to view


This study agrees with previous works that knowledge on HIV/AIDS is high among the populace in the developing world. [7] This high knowledge may be due to continuous and effective health education on HIV/AIDS by relevant stakeholders. Mass media and health talk by medical officers were recognized as the main source of information on HIV/AIDS as documented in many local studies. [7],[8] Knowledge on MTCT of HIV/AIDS is however low in this study, unlike the high-level of awareness reported among pregnant women and mothers attending pediatric HIV clinic. [6],[11]

With regards to perception, 73.9% of our patients believed that they were invulnerable or at most had little risk of contracting HIV infection. This also agrees with findings that over 70% of Nigerian youths commonly expressed optimism bias about HIV succeptibility. [8],[10] In Nigeria, where stigmatization is rife and has been noted to prevent people from HIV testing or accessing treatment, this finding is not unexpected.

The finding that many participants did not perceive themselves to be at risk of contracting HIV infection, but engaged in risky sexual practices call for extensive studies on behavioral change and improvement in self-perception. In this study, significantly more participants with multiple sexual partners, past and present history of STI did not perceive themselves to be at risk. In sub-Saharan Africa, low risk perception as well as high risky sexual behavior and lack of access to HIV information have been described to account for the high vulnerability of many young people to HIV infection. [12],[13] Some researchers have found a strong relationship between self-perceptions of contracting HIV infection

and risk-reduction behaviors. [3],[8],[12],[13],[14] Weinstein and Nicolich [14] reported that perceived personal susceptibility and one's risk-reducing behavior influences each other. That is, if one perceives that his or her personal susceptibility is high, the individual may change his or her behavior or engage in activities, which in turn will reduce personal susceptibility.

Health education has been shown as a key strategy to influencing or persuading people for positive behavioral change. This is usually achieved through risk-appraisal of impending danger. [13] Risk-appraisal involves cognitive processes that examine the severity of the threatening event and the possibility of its occurrence. In this study, perception of risk of HIV infection was influenced by some socio-demographic characteristics. Women, individuals with high education and married were more likely to perceive themselves to be at risk of contracting HIV infection while more males, adolescents, young adults, non-married (single) and those with low education were more likely not to perceive themselves to be at risk. It is therefore desirable that in-depth risk analysis or risk-appraisal be frequently carried out with a view to enhancing self-risk perception especially among the adolescents or young adults' males with low educational attainment.

 
   References Top

1.UNAIDS. Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemics, 2008. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Lucas AO, Gilles HM. Short Textbook of Public Health Medicine for the Tropics. 4 th ed. Malta: Bookpower; 2003. p. 106-13.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Beaudoin CE. HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: A multilevel analysis of message frames and their social determinants. Health Promot Int 2007;22:198-206.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.World Health Organisation (2010). France: WHO Health Statistics, WHO; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Report on the global AIDS epidemic 2006. Available from http://www.unaids.org/en/HIV-data/2006 globalreportdeficult.asp. [Accessed on 2011 Apr 10].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Adeleke SI, Mukhtar-Yola M, Gwarzo GD. Awareness and knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV among mothers attending the pediatric HIV clinic, Kano, Nigeria. Ann Afr Med 2009;8:210-4.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
7.Fisher JD, Fisher WA. Theoretical approaches to individual change in HIV risk. In: Peterson JL, Diclemente RJ, editors. Handbook of HIV Prevention. New York: Plenum Press; 2000. p. 3-56.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Odu OO, Asekun-Olarinmoye EO, Bamidele JO, Egbewale BE, Amusan OA, Olowu AO. Knowledge, attitudes to HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour of students in a tertiary institution in south-western Nigeria. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2008;13:90-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]    
9.Owolabi AT, Onayade AA, Ogunlola IO, Ogunniyi SO, Kuti O. Sexual behaviour of secondary school adolescents in Ilesa, Nigeria: Implications for the spread of STIs including HIV/AIDS. J Obstet Gynaecol 2005;25:174-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    
10.Ijadunola KT, Abiona TC, Odu OO, Ijadunola MY. College students in Nigeria underestimate their risk of contracting HIV/AIDS infection. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2007;12:131-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]    
11.Abiodun MO, Ijaiya MA, Aboyeji PA. Awareness and knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV among pregnant women. J Natl Med Assoc 2007;99:758-63.  Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]    
12.Tenkorang EY, Adjei JK, Gyimah SO. Perceptions of HIV/AIDS risk and sexual Risk-Taking of young people in Ghana. Can J Dev Stud 2010;31:439-57.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Seyde E, Tall E, Wlegman O. Risk-appraisal. Outcome and self-efficacy expectancies: cognitive factors in preventing behaviour related to cancer. Psychol Health 1990;4:99-109.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Weinstein ND, Nicolich M. Correct and incorrect interpretations of correlations between risk perceptions and risk behaviors. Health Psychol 1993;12:235-45.  Back to cited text no. 14
[PUBMED]    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1188    
    Printed19    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded213    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal