|Year : 2012 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 235-237
Prevalence of domestic accidents in the rural field practice area of a medical college in Bangalore, Karnataka
NR Ramesh Masthi1, SG Kishore2, Gangaboriah3
1 Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Tutor cum Post graduate, Department of Community Medicine, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
3 Professor of Statistics, Department of Community Medicine, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
|Date of Web Publication||3-Dec-2012|
N R Ramesh Masthi
Associate Professor, 101, N D Pinnacle Apartments, 13th Main, 12th Cross, BTM- II Stage, Bangalore - 560 076, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Domestic accidents are worldwide health problems. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural field practice area of Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore. A total of 5419 individuals were selected from 30 clusters (villages) using cluster sampling technique. Of the 5419 study population, 50.9% (2748) were males and the rest were females. The prevalence of domestic accidents in the rural community was found to be 9.6% (522 individuals who had sustained domestic accidents), was found to be more in females compared with males, which was statistically significant with P-value =0.0077 (Z value =9.09). Falls 43% (225) was the most common type of domestic accidents. The most common place of occurrence of domestic accidents was 46% (243) kitchen, most frequent site of injures in domestic accidents was upper limbs.
Keywords: Domestic accidents, Karnataka, Rural area
|How to cite this article:|
Ramesh Masthi N R, Kishore S G, Gangaboriah. Prevalence of domestic accidents in the rural field practice area of a medical college in Bangalore, Karnataka. Indian J Public Health 2012;56:235-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Ramesh Masthi N R, Kishore S G, Gangaboriah. Prevalence of domestic accidents in the rural field practice area of a medical college in Bangalore, Karnataka. Indian J Public Health [serial online] 2012 [cited 2019 Oct 18];56:235-7. Available from: http://www.ijph.in/text.asp?2012/56/3/235/104262
Domestic accidents are worldwide public health problems. Accidents can take place in a wide variety of environments and there is a possibility of accidents in every sphere of human life: at home, at play, and at work.  These accidents have not so far been recognized to the same extent as traffic and work-related injuries, largely because they have not been effectively counted. Studies on domestic accidents in rural area are virtually nonexistent in India (underreporting!). In this background, the present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of domestic accidents in a rural community and the information obtained may give an insight into the planners about the magnitude of the problem and the need for appropriate preventive measures.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural field practice area of Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, covering a population of 44,387 residing in 71 villages in the period from January to December, 2009, which included review of literature, proforma preparation and finalization, pilot study, data collection, analysis of data, and writing of report. Domestic accident is an accident, which takes place in the home or in its immediate surroundings and more generally, all accidents not connected with traffic, vehicles or sport.  The data collection in the field took 2 months. Recall period for domestic accident in this study was considered as 1 year from the date on which the household was visited and surveyed by the investigator.
From the pilot study conducted on 30 households comprising of 138 subjects, the prevalence of domestic accidents was found to be 9 (7%), which yields prevalence = 0.07 with relative precision of 10% at 95% confidence interval (α=0.05). Substituting the above values, the sample size obtained was 5314. The sample size of 5314 is divided into 30 clusters, which yielded 177.13. To round it off, an additional 26 were added to 5314, and this divided by 30 gives a sample of 178 individuals per cluster. A total of 5419 individuals were selected from 30 clusters using Cluster Sampling Technique. In each cluster, 178 individuals (some clusters had more than 178 individuals because the last house had more than the required number of people and had to be included) were surveyed by house-to-house visit. Information about domestic accidents among the family members in the past 1 year was obtained by interviewing the head of the family or responsible adult informant using a pretested structured proforma in the local language (Kannada). The analysis of data was performed by using SPSS V.11.0. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, viz. percentages and the inferential statistics using Z-test to test the difference between proportions. The difference in proportion is considered statistically significant whenever P≤0.05.
Out of 5419 study population, 50.9% (2748) were males and 49.1% (2671) were females. Majority 22% (1210) were in the age group of 15-24 years as shown in [Table 1]. The prevalence of domestic accidents in the rural community was found to be 9.6% (522 individuals who had sustained domestic accidents) and was found to be more in females compared with males, which was statistically significant with P-value =0.0077 (Z-value =9.09). Prevalence was more (21.9%) among 1-4 years age group. Of the 522 domestic accident cases, 59% (309) belonged to low socioeconomic status, 38% (201) belonged to medium socioeconomic status, and the remaining 3% (12) individuals belonged to high socioeconomic status when the Standard of Living Index scale was applied; 86% (449) of the domestic accident victims were Hindus, 13% (70) were Muslims, and the remaining 1% (3) were Christians. Falls 43% (225) was the most common type of domestic accidents followed by injuries from sharp or pointed instruments 27% (141) as described in [Table 2].
The most frequent type of injury observed in domestic accident victims was abrasion 49% (257), laceration 33% (171), contusion 5% (25), fracture 3% (15), crush injury 2% (11), and 8% (43) victims had multiple injuries. The most common place of occurrence of domestic accidents was 46% (243) kitchen, 40% (207) yard, 11% (56) living room, and 3% (16) in bathroom.
Most frequent site of injures in domestic accidents was upper limbs 70% (366), followed by lower limbs 34% (178), head and neck 12% (63), back 4% (21), and injuries in thorax and abdomen 2% (11).
Majority 92% (480) of domestic accident victims had recovered completely, 6% (32) of victims were in the recovery phase at the end of the study period, and 2% (10) of victims recovered with disability. There was no death reported due to domestic accident.
In the present study, prevalence of domestic accidents in a rural community for the period of 1 year for all age groups was found to be 9.6%, However, Haniff et al. observed in their study that the prevalence of self-reported home injury for all age groups was 2.5% for 1-year.  Therein, et al. it was observed that the overall injury prevalence rate was 19.5%. 
Prevalence of domestic accidents was found to be more common in the age group 1-4 years (22%). This may be attributed to the fact that they spend more time in the home. This was in accordance with a study by Neghab et al., which showed that more than 25% of accidents occurred among children aged less than 4 years.  A study conducted by Zaleha at the community level in Malaysia covering only children 6 years and below found a prevalence rate of 25%.  But Bhanderi et al. in their study mentioned that domestic accidents are more common in extreme age groups. 
The prevalence of domestic accidents was found to be more in females. This may be due to the fact that females spend more time at home. This was in accordance with the findings of Haniff et al. where the prevalence in females was reported higher (3%) than males (2%).  Bhanderi et al., in their study, mentioned that female gender was found to be a significant predictor of domestic accidents. 
Falls were found to be the commonest type of domestic accidents followed by sharp cut injuries and burns. This is consistent with findings of Bhanderi et al. where the most common accidents reported was fall; other accidents noted were burns,  and also Chaurasia et al. observed a higher proportion of falls, burns, and scalds in their study.
We had observed that most of the victims of domestic accident had recovered completely (92%), some were in the recovery phase (6%), and few victims had recovered with disability (2%). No deaths were reported due to domestic accidents. This is consistent with the results of a study by Bhanderi et al. where full recovery was observed in 83% cases of domestic accidents.  However, Neghab et al. reported that permanent disability rate was 0.05% and mortality rate due to domestic accidents was 1% in their study, which was high. 
This study clearly suggests that domestic accidents are more common in the 1-4 year age group and in females. The reasons may be the higher amount of time spent at home and greater participation in daily home activities. Similar studies involving larger samples and geographical areas are needed for generalization of the results.
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[Table 1], [Table 2]