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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 56  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 103-104  

Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale: Updating income ranges for the year 2012

1 Scientist C, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India
2 Scientist E, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India
3 Professor, PSM Department, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication6-Jun-2012

Correspondence Address:
Neeta Kumar
Scientist C, Division of RHN, ICMR Hqrs, Ansari nagar, New Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0019-557X.96988

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How to cite this article:
Kumar N, Gupta N, Kishore J. Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale: Updating income ranges for the year 2012. Indian J Public Health 2012;56:103-4

How to cite this URL:
Kumar N, Gupta N, Kishore J. Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale: Updating income ranges for the year 2012. Indian J Public Health [serial online] 2012 [cited 2016 Feb 10];56:103-4. Available from:


Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale has been in use as an important aid to measure socioeconomic status of families in urban communities. The original 1976 version [1] [Table 1] has been updated by Mishra and Singh in 2003 [2] and Kumar et al., [3] in 2007. There is a huge demand from researchers for the updated version of this scale because changes in inflation rate change the monetary values of the monthly income range scores. Thus, it has become imperative to provide the updated version of the scale in a domain with large circulation to fulfill the needs of currently ongoing research. The last update was done [3] and published in public domain in 2007. This latest update, that may be applicable in the studies ongoing in 2012, is done using latest Consumer Price Index Numbers for Industrial Workers - CPI (IW) for January, 2012 (accessed on 4-3-12).
Table 1: Original Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale

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[Table 2] shows how index and base year have seen changes for reference index and has been used to calculate inflation-based conversion factor.
Table 2: Year-wise reference indices

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Kuppuswamy's scale used index for 1960 as 100, which increased to 296 in 1976 and 490 in the year 1982. Here the need for conversion factor arose, because changing index value as 100 for base year in 1982 and 2001 led to calculate conversion factor derived from older index and new base index. If there has been simple hike of price index without changing base year, simple multiplication factor would have been sufficient to find updated income ranges. Conversion factor takes account of hike in original price index as well as its change of base value as 100. Therefore, in place of simple multiplication factor, conversion factor needs to be derived every year using current price index for industrial workers (CPI, IW) and base year for that index. It can be understood by the exercise done below for few years in serial.

Multiplying this factor yields the inflated rates in different income groups in Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale for different year. [Table 3] shows the update done in 1998 and on yearly basis since 2007.
Table 3: Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale: update of income range

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The round figures were used where applicable and the shortcomings remain the same [3] as educational and occupational scales should also be revised. However, further large sample survey and validation is required. With the increasing price, the income grading can be updated by using this submission. One more updating in this year can be applied using same formula and price index of June, 2012, 6 months onward from now.

   References Top

1.Kuppuswamy B. Manual of socioeconomic status scale (urban). Delhi: Manasayan; 1981.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Mishra D, Singh HP. Kuppuswamy's scocioeconomic status scale-A revision. Indian J Pediatr 2003;70:273-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Kumar N, Shekhar C, Kumar P, Kundu AS. Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale-Updating for 2007. Indian J Pediatr 2007;74:1131-2.  Back to cited text no. 3


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

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