Users Online: 112 Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size


Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 56  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 103-104  

Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale: Updating income ranges for the year 2012

1 Scientist C, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India
2 Scientist E, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India
3 Professor, PSM Department, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication6-Jun-2012

Correspondence Address:
Neeta Kumar
Scientist C, Division of RHN, ICMR Hqrs, Ansari nagar, New Delhi
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0019-557X.96988

Get Permissions

How to cite this article:
Kumar N, Gupta N, Kishore J. Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale: Updating income ranges for the year 2012. Indian J Public Health 2012;56:103-4

How to cite this URL:
Kumar N, Gupta N, Kishore J. Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale: Updating income ranges for the year 2012. Indian J Public Health [serial online] 2012 [cited 2016 May 6];56:103-4. Available from:


Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale has been in use as an important aid to measure socioeconomic status of families in urban communities. The original 1976 version [1] [Table 1] has been updated by Mishra and Singh in 2003 [2] and Kumar et al., [3] in 2007. There is a huge demand from researchers for the updated version of this scale because changes in inflation rate change the monetary values of the monthly income range scores. Thus, it has become imperative to provide the updated version of the scale in a domain with large circulation to fulfill the needs of currently ongoing research. The last update was done [3] and published in public domain in 2007. This latest update, that may be applicable in the studies ongoing in 2012, is done using latest Consumer Price Index Numbers for Industrial Workers - CPI (IW) for January, 2012 (accessed on 4-3-12).
Table 1: Original Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale

Click here to view

[Table 2] shows how index and base year have seen changes for reference index and has been used to calculate inflation-based conversion factor.
Table 2: Year-wise reference indices

Click here to view

Kuppuswamy's scale used index for 1960 as 100, which increased to 296 in 1976 and 490 in the year 1982. Here the need for conversion factor arose, because changing index value as 100 for base year in 1982 and 2001 led to calculate conversion factor derived from older index and new base index. If there has been simple hike of price index without changing base year, simple multiplication factor would have been sufficient to find updated income ranges. Conversion factor takes account of hike in original price index as well as its change of base value as 100. Therefore, in place of simple multiplication factor, conversion factor needs to be derived every year using current price index for industrial workers (CPI, IW) and base year for that index. It can be understood by the exercise done below for few years in serial.

Multiplying this factor yields the inflated rates in different income groups in Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale for different year. [Table 3] shows the update done in 1998 and on yearly basis since 2007.
Table 3: Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale: update of income range

Click here to view

The round figures were used where applicable and the shortcomings remain the same [3] as educational and occupational scales should also be revised. However, further large sample survey and validation is required. With the increasing price, the income grading can be updated by using this submission. One more updating in this year can be applied using same formula and price index of June, 2012, 6 months onward from now.

   References Top

1.Kuppuswamy B. Manual of socioeconomic status scale (urban). Delhi: Manasayan; 1981.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Mishra D, Singh HP. Kuppuswamy's scocioeconomic status scale-A revision. Indian J Pediatr 2003;70:273-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Kumar N, Shekhar C, Kumar P, Kundu AS. Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale-Updating for 2007. Indian J Pediatr 2007;74:1131-2.  Back to cited text no. 3


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

This article has been cited by
1 Factors associated With the development of motor proficiency in school children of Kolkata: A cross-sectional study to assess the role of chronic nutritional and socio-economic status
Satabdi Ghosh,Tusharkanti Ghosh,Sutanu Dutta Chowdhury,Brian H. Wrotniak,Ananga Mohan Chandra
Developmental Psychobiology. 2016; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Increased cardiovascular risks associated with familial inbreeding: a population-based study of adolescent cohort
Mohd Fareed,Mohammad Afzal
Annals of Epidemiology. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Immunogenicity and safety of two doses of catch-up immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in Indian children living with HIV
Bikas K. Arya,Sangeeta Das Bhattacharya,Catherine G. Sutcliffe,M.K. Saha,Subhasish Bhattacharyya,Swapan Kumar Niyogi,William J. Moss,Samiran Panda,Ranjan Saurav Das,Mausom Mallick,Sutapa Mandal
Vaccine. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Nutritional Status of Rural Bengali Adolescent Boys of Tripura: Author’s Reply
Sandeep Roy Sarkar
The Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Socioeconomic factors relating to diabetes and its management in India
Usha Shrivastava,Anoop Misra,Rajeev Gupta,Vijay Viswanathan
Journal of Diabetes. 2016; 8(1): 12
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Influence of socio-economic status on access to different components of SCI management across Indian population
H S Chhabra,A M Bhalla
Spinal Cord. 2015; 53(11): 816
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Preparation, validation and user-testing of pictogram-based patient information leaflets for hemodialysis patients
Uday Venkat Mateti,Anantha Naik Nagappa,Ravindra Prabhu Attur,Manohar Bairy,Shankar Prasad Nagaraju,Surulivelrajan Mallayasamy,Rajesh Vilakkathala,Vasudev Guddattu,Rajesh Balkrishnan
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2015;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Cardiovascular risk reduction intervention among school-students in Kolkata, West Bengal – The CRRIS study protocol
Soumitra Kumar,Saumitra Ray,Tanmay Mahapatra,Kinnari Gupta,Sanchita Mahapatra,Mrinal K. Das,Santanu Guha,Pradip K. Deb,Amal K. Banerjee
Indian Heart Journal. 2015;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Maternal nerve growth factor levels during pregnancy in women with preeclampsia: A longitudinal study
Vandita Dæsouza,Anitha Kilari,Hemlata Pisal,Vidya Patil,Savita Mehendale,Girija Wagh,Sanjay Gupte,Sadhana Joshi
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience. 2015; 47: 340
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Effect of pre-treatment nutritional status, folate and vitamin B12 levels on induction chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Sneha Tandon,Nirmalya Roy Moulik,Archana Kumar,Abbas Ali Mahdi,Ashutosh Kumar
Indian Pediatrics. 2015; 52(5): 385
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Compliance with supportive periodontal therapy among patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis
Neeraj Agrawal,Richa Jain,Manish Jain,Kavita Agarwal,Aashutosh Dubey
Journal of Oral Science. 2015; 57(3): 249
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Urban Rural Comparisons of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Burden among Adolescent Girls in a Hospital Setting in India
Swetha Balaji,Chioma Amadi,Satish Prasad,Jyoti Bala Kasav,Vandana Upadhyay,Awnish K. Singh,Krishna Mohan Surapaneni,Ashish Joshi
BioMed Research International. 2015; 2015: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Association of sociodemographics, technology use and health literacy among type 2 diabetic individuals living in an Indian setting: an exploratory cross-sectional study
Divya Ramasamy,Awnish Kumar Singh,Surapaneni Krishna Mohan,Meenakshi N.
International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries. 2015;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Vitamin-D Deficiency Is Associated with Gallbladder Stasis Among Pregnant Women
Rimpi Singla,Usha Dutta,Neelam Aggarwal,Sanjay Kumar Bhadada,Rakesh Kochhar,Lakhbir K. Dhaliwal
Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 2015; 60(9): 2793
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Alcohol use disorders among pulmonary tuberculosis patients under RNTCP in urban Pondicherry, India
A.M. Veerakumar,Swaroop Kumar Sahu,Sonali Sarkar,Shivanand Kattimani,S. Govindarajan
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis. 2015; 62(3): 171
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Community knowledge, awareness and preventive practices regarding dengue fever in Puducherry – South India
S. Jeelani,S. Sabesan,S. Subramanian
Public Health. 2015;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Grades of undernutrition and socioeconomic status influence cognitive development in school children of Kolkata
Satabdi Ghosh,Sutanu Dutta Chowdhury,Ananga Mohan Chandra,Tusharkanti Ghosh
American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 2014; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 A cross-sectional study to investigate pneumococcal vaccination in the elderly in a low income county: Patient knowledge, awareness, and attitudes of vaccination and prevalence rates by socioeconomic status
Shoukat Ali Baig,Maroof Hassan,Syed Mustajab Ahmed,Wardah Moazzam,Ailya Inayat
Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 2014; 10(4)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Evidence of inbreeding depression on height, weight, and body mass index: A population-based child cohort study
Mohd Fareed,Mohammad Afzal
American Journal of Human Biology. 2014; 26(6): 784
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Socio-economic profile of patients with community-acquired skin and soft tissue infections in Delhi
Arjun Ravishankar,Seema Singh,Sumit Rai,Naveen Sharma,Sanjay Gupta,Rajat Thawani
Pathogens and Global Health. 2014; 108(6): 279
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Prevalence of dental pain and its relationship to caries experience in school children of Udupi district
Y. S. Kumar,S. Acharya,K. C. Pentapati
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Incidence, Pattern, and Severity of Acute Respiratory Infections among Infants and Toddlers of a Peri-Urban Area of Delhi: A 12-Month Prospective Study
Sneha P. Walke,Ranjan Das,Anita Shankar Acharya,Harish K. Pemde
International Scholarly Research Notices. 2014; 2014: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Life experiences and quality of life of involuntarily childless men in treatment and adoptive fathers
Saraswathi Bhaskar,René Hoksbergen,Anneloes van Baar,Arun Tipandjan,Jan ter Laak
Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology. 2014; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Diabetes in rural individuals of different nutritional status and the alarming situation demands focus more on its under-nutrition association
Smarajit Maiti,Nirmalya K. Sinha,Md. Mobidullah Khan,Prasanta K. Das,Jadab C. Chattopadhyay
Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry. 2014; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Predictors of Stress Among Parents in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: A Prospective Observational Study
Mohd. Aamir,Kundan Mittal,Jaya Shankar Kaushik,Haripal Kashyap,Gurpreet Kaur
The Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Development and validation of a scale measuring the locus of control orientation in relation to socio-dental effects
S. Acharya,K. C. Pentapati,D. K. Singhal,A. S. Thakur
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Higher levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor but similar nerve growth factor in human milk in women with preeclampsia
Dangat, K. and Kilari, A. and Mehendale, S. and Lalwani, S. and Joshi, S.
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience. 2013; 31(3): 209-213
28 Outcomes in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in the north indian population
Sachan, R. and Patel, M.L. and Sachan, P. and Gaurav, A. and Singh, M. and Bansal, B.
International Journal of Womenæs Health. 2013; 5(1): 101-108
29 Gender inequality and bio-social factors in nutritional status among under five children attending anganwadis in an urban slum of a town in Western Maharashtra, India
Patel, K.A. and Langare, S.D. and Naik, J.D. and Rajderkar, S.S.
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2013; 18(4): 341-345
30 Gestation Dependant Changes in Angiogenic Factors and Their Associations with Fetal Growth Measures in Normotensive Pregnancy
Sundrani, D. and Khot, V. and Pisal, H. and Mehendale, S. and Wagh, G. and Joshi, A. and Joshi, S.
PLoS ONE. 2013; 8(1)
31 Higher levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor but similar nerve growth factor in human milk in women with preeclampsia
Kamini Dangat,Anitha Kilari,Savita Mehendale,Sanjay Lalwani,Sadhana Joshi
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience. 2013; 31(3): 209
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Evaluation of anaemia in booked antenatal mothers during the last trimester
Ivan, E.A., Mangaiarkkarasi, A.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2013; 7(11): 2487-2490
33 Correlation of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin with acute kidney injury in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy
Patel, M.L., Sachan, R., Gangwar, R., Sachan, P., Natu, S.M.
International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease. 2013; 6: 181-186
34 Thalassemia Major and Intermedia in Jammu and Kashmir, India: A Regional Transfusion Centre Experience
Rahul Vasudev,Vijay Sawhney
Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion. 2013;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Implementation of the INTERGROWTH-21stProject in India
M Purwar,N Kunnawar,S Deshmukh,A Singh,I Mulik,V Taori,K Tayade,C Mahorkar,A Somani,K Saboo,A Choudhary,C Shembekar,S Choudhary,M Ketkar,HE Knight,I Blakey,L Cheikh Ismail
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2013; 120: 94
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Estimation of quality of life in haemodialysis patients
Abraham, S. and Ramachandran, A.
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012; 74(6): 583-587


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded4231    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 36    

Recommend this journal