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SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 54  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 213-215  

Profile and sensitivity pattern of bacteria isolated from various cultures in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Delhi


1 Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Senior Resident, Department of Community Medicine, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication3-Mar-2011

Correspondence Address:
Suminder Kaur
Senior Resident, Department of Community Medicine, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0019-557X.77264

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   Abstract 

The objective of present study was to determine the profile and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of bacteria isolated from various cultures in a tertiary hospital in Delhi. Culture and sensitivity of all blood, urine, pus, and throat sample reports obtained from May 2006 to April 2007 were analyzed from the central microbiology laboratory register. Among 6918 sample reports analyzed, about half (46%) of them were positive. The most commonly bacteria isolated in 35% of positive blood and pus samples was vancomycin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Most common organism isolated in 54% of positive urine samples was imepenem-sensitive Escherichia coli.

Keywords: Antibiotic, Antimicrobial, Hospital, Resistance, Sensitivity


How to cite this article:
Tiwari P, Kaur S. Profile and sensitivity pattern of bacteria isolated from various cultures in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Delhi. Indian J Public Health 2010;54:213-5

How to cite this URL:
Tiwari P, Kaur S. Profile and sensitivity pattern of bacteria isolated from various cultures in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Delhi. Indian J Public Health [serial online] 2010 [cited 2019 Nov 17];54:213-5. Available from: http://www.ijph.in/text.asp?2010/54/4/213/77264

Antibiotic resistance is a serious problem that has the potential to drag the world into pre-antibiotic era. [1] The most probable reason is the widespread use of antibiotics and often choosing an inappropriate drug. The misuse of antibiotics stems primarily from the inherent inclination of doctors toward prescribing the potent antibiotics. As one expert puts it, "When it comes to prescribing antibiotics, most doctors use the canon, when a gun can be used to kill the same enemy." [2] There is a need of periodic analysis of the pattern and sensitivity of organisms isolated and the results need to be communicated to doctors. The present study is one such effort to determine the profile and the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of the frequently isolated bacteria from various cultures in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India.

The present study was conducted on all the blood, urine, pus, and throat culture reports obtained from May 2006 to April 2007, from the register of the central microbiology laboratory of a tertiary hospital in Delhi. Permission was taken from the ethical committee of the institution and from the in-charge of the central microbiology laboratory. The culture reports of the samples which were already registered were noted. Among the positive culture reports, the antibiotic sensitivity of the common bacteria isolated were also noted to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern. The data thus collected were converted into a computer-based spreadsheet. Percentages and proportions were calculated.

A total of 6918 sample reports were analyzed. Out of these, 1680 were blood samples, 3504 were urine samples, 1176 were pus samples, and 558 were throat swab samples. Cultures of 46% of all the samples were positive for bacterial growth. It was found that cultures of 890 (53%) blood samples, 1122 (32%) urine samples, 952 (81%) pus samples, and 20% of throat swabs samples, i.e. 112 samples were positive.


   Blood Culture Top


[Table 1] shows that among the positive blood culture reports, the most commonly isolated bacteria was Staphylococcus aureus (311; 35% samples). [Table 2] also shows that all the S. aureus isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, a finding which was similar to study by Fluit. [3] About two-third isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin.
Table 1: Profile of bacteria isolated from various cultures

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Table 2: Antibiotic sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus Scientific Name Search  isolated from various cultures

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All isolates of  Salmonella More Details typhi were found to be sensitive to cefixime and ceftriaxone. The sensitivity pattern of the isolates was found to be 93% to ciprofloxacin, 88% to chloramphenicol, 80% to cotriamoxazole, and 75% to amoxicillin. When compared to the study by Lakshmi in a tertiary hospital in Hyderabad, [4] the sensitivity pattern was different. This may be because of differential use of antibiotics in different hospitals. The Klebsiella isolates in blood showed 95% sensitivity to imepenem, 50% to piperacillin + tazobactum, 8% to ceftriaxone, and showed 100% resistance to ampicillin. The  Escherichia More Details coli isolates in blood showed 98% sensitivity to imepenam, 92% to amikacin, 84% to cefeperazone + sulbactum, and only 8% to ampicillin. A maximum sensitivity to imepenam and amikacin was also found in some previous studies. [3],[5]


   Urine culture Top


[Table 1] shows that the most common organisms isolated were E. coli (in 605: 54% samples) followed by Klebsiella and S. aureus. Similar results were found by Gupta in Chandigarh. [6] The E. coli isolates showed 100% sensitivity toward imepenem, 83% to cefaperazone + sulbactum, and 45% to piperacillin + tazobactum, 15% to ciprofloxacin and 11% to ampicillin. The Klebsiella isolates showed 99% sensitivity to imepenem and 66% to amkacin, which was also found by Gupta. [6] The sensitivity was 45% to nitrofurantoin, 25% to ciprofloxacin, and only 3% to ampicillin. [Table 2] shows that S. aureus isolates were 100% sensitive to vancomycin and nitrofurantoin.


   Pus culture Top


[Table 1] shows that among the positive pus culture reports, the most common (342; 35.5%) organisms isolated were S. aureus which were 100% sensitive to vancomycin, 87% to clindamycin, and 75% to oxacillin [Table 2]. The Pseudomonas isolates showed 52% sensitivity to oxacillin, 50% to imepenem, 32% to piperacillin + tazobactum, and 45% to amikacin. A similar antibiotic sensitivity pattern was found in previous studies by Fluit [3] and Zhanel, [5] but the isolates were less sensitive to antibiotics as compared to them. The Klebsiella isolates showed 100% sensitivity to imepenem, 43% to piperacillin + tazobactum, 21% to cefotaxime, and 5% to ampicillin. The E. coli isolates showed 100% sensitivity to imepenem, 75% to amikacin, 60% to piperacillin + tazobactum, 20% to ceftriaxone, and 5% to amoxicillin.


   Throat culture Top


Only 20% of throat swab samples were positive because it is known that about two thirds of the sore throat cases are viral in origin. [7] [Table 1] shows that among the positive throat culture reports, the most commonly isolated organisms were S. aureus (90; 80%), which is different from the most common bacteria causing sore throat, i.e. group A Streptococci. [7] [Table 2] shows that the St. aureus isolates were 100% sensitive to vancomycin and 57% to ofloxacin.

A limitation of this study is that the data used were not a primary data. This study provides one-time information about the antibiotic sensitivity which is not sufficient, as the periodic revision of the sensitivity pattern is very essential. The strength of this study is that the sample size is large as it is a record-based study. This study gives us the guidelines for prescription of antibiotics to the patients. More research is needed to find association of culture and sensitivity reports with the antibiotics used in the hospital and the practical utility of such data for the hospital and even other hospitals in the community.

We are highly thankful to Dr Saudan Singh, Head of the Department for their support in this research work and also to the Central microbiology lab for the permission given.

 
   References Top

1.Development of a Novel Monoclonal Antibody to Treat Life-Threatening Staph Infections 44 th ICAAC. A meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. Oct - Nov, 2004, Washington, DC. Session 132, Paper 1287 Available from: http://www.asm.org/Media/index.asp?bid=31152. [last accessed on 2009 Apr 7].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Dutta R. Hospitals need to chart their individual antibiotic policy. Express Healthcare Management. 2004. Available from: http://www.expresshealthcaremgmt.com/20040415/coverstory01.shtml [last accessed on 2010 Sept 26].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Fluit AC, Verhoef J, Schmitz FJ; European SENTRY Participants. Frequency of isolation and antimicrobial resistance of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria from patients in intensive care units of 25 European university hospitals participating in the European arm of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program 1997-1998. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2001;20:617-25.  Back to cited text no. 3
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4.Lakshmi V, Ashok R, Susmita J, Shailaja VV. Changing trends in the antibiograms of salmonella isolates at a tertiary care hospital in Hyderabad. Indian J Med Microbiol 2006;24:45-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
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5.Zhanel GG, DeCorby M, Laing N, Weshnoweski B, Vashisht R, Tailor F, et al. Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in intensive care units in Canada: Results of the Canadian National Intensive Care Unit (CAN-ICU) study, 2005-2006. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008;52:1430-7.   Back to cited text no. 5
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6.Gupta V, Yadav A, Joshi RM. Antibiotic resistance pattern in uropathogens. Indian J Med Microbiol 2002;20:96-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
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7.Chakraborty P. Respiratory Tract Infections. In: A Textbook of Microbiology. 2 nd ed. Kolkota: New Central Book Agency (P) Ltd; 2007. p. 655.  Back to cited text no. 7
    



 
 
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    Blood Culture
    Urine culture
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