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SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 54  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 205-208  

A study on teenage pregnant mothers attending primary health centers of Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore


1 Professor and Head, Department of Community Medicine, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, India
2 Postgraduate Student, Department of Community Medicine, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, India
3 Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, India

Date of Web Publication3-Mar-2011

Correspondence Address:
B G Parasuramalu
Professor & HOD, Department of Community Medicine, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Banashankari IInd stage, Bangalore-506 0070
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0019-557X.77262

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   Abstract 

Data were collected from 78 teenage pregnant mothers (15-19 years) out of 1446 pregnant mothers who attended the primary health centers situated in the field practice area of the rural health center, Kengeri of Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, between May and July 2009 to study the factors associated with teenage pregnancies and awareness regarding family planning. This was a descriptive study. Out of 78 teenage pregnant mothers, 57 (73%) were Hindus and 45 (57.7%) belonged to joint families. 76 (97.4%) teenage pregnant mothers were housewives, i.e. 55 (70.5%) of the spouses of the teenage pregnant mothers were laborers, in majority, i.e. 40 (51.3%) teenage pregnant mothers' age at marriage and the age at first pregnancy were 18 years. The mean age at marriage increased significantly with an increase of the educational status of the teenage pregnant mothers (F value = 7.08%, P< 0.002). The mean age at first pregnancy was also increased with an increase of the education status of both the teenage pregnant mothers and their spouse. The most common reason for early marriage and early pregnancy was traditional practices and family pressure among 50 (64%) and 45 (57.7%) teenage pregnant mothers, respectively. 49 (63%) teenage pregnant mothers were not aware of any family planning methods.

Keywords: Early marriage, Family planning methods, Teenage pregnant mothers


How to cite this article:
Parasuramalu B G, Shakila N, Masthi RN. A study on teenage pregnant mothers attending primary health centers of Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore. Indian J Public Health 2010;54:205-8

How to cite this URL:
Parasuramalu B G, Shakila N, Masthi RN. A study on teenage pregnant mothers attending primary health centers of Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore. Indian J Public Health [serial online] 2010 [cited 2019 Nov 15];54:205-8. Available from: http://www.ijph.in/text.asp?2010/54/4/205/77262

Teenage pregnancy (15-19 years) is on the rise, emerging as a serious problem today all over the world and more so in the developing countries like India, as early marriages and early pregnancy are the accepted cultural norms of our society. [1] In India, 18.2% of women aged between 20 and 24 years were married by the age of 15 years and 47.4% by the age of 18 years. 16% of adolescents between 15 and 19 years have begun childbearing and in Karnataka this level is 17%. Only 13% of married adolescent girls use any contraceptive method and the unmet need for family planning in the age group of 15-19 years is 27%. [2] Adolescent childbearing has many consequences. Besides, being a major determinant of large family size and rapid growth in population, fertility among adolescents may have significant social, economic, and health consequences. [3] Many studies have shown that a majority of teenage pregnant mothers were at high risk during pregnancy and had complications during delivery. [4],[5],[6] A lack of awareness about legal age of marriage is a common phenomenon in rural areas. Publicity of Child Marriage Restrain Act is poor and enforcement virtually non-existent. Even though millions of girls in the country are married before attaining the age of 18 years, the number of cases registered under the Act in a period of 6 years 1994-2000 were only 391 (NCRR-2001). [7] In view of the negative socio-economic, demographic, and health consequences of early childbearing, it is important to have a clear understanding of this vulnerable group of teenage pregnant girls.

In this background, the present study was undertaken with the following objectives: (1) to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of the teenage pregnant mothers. (2) To list the reasons for early marriage and early pregnancy. (3) To assess the awareness of family planning among the teenage pregnant mothers.

The present study was conducted in four Primary Health Centers, i.e. Kengeri, Kengeri Satellite Town, K. Golahalli, and Kumbalgod situated in the field practice area of the Rural Health Center, Kengeri, of Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, with a gross population of 1,30,560. After obtaining informed consent, the data were collected in local language (Kannada) among all those teenage pregnant mothers (15-19 years) [2] who attended the antenatal clinics of these PHCs using a pretested structured standardized proforma between May and July 2009 by the trained interns and post-graduates. This was a descriptive study. Out of 1446 pregnant mothers who attended antenatal clinics, 78 were teenage pregnant mothers from whom the data were collected.

In the present study, all 78 teenage pregnant mothers were married. Among them, 57 (73%) were Hindus, 45 (57.7%) belonged to joint families, and 29 (37.1%) studied up to the primary/middle school. 76 (97.4%) teenage pregnant mothers were housewives. 36 (46.1%) teenage pregnant mothers belonged to the socio-economic Class II, according to the Modified BG Prasad Classification [Table 1].
Table 1: Socio-demographic characteristics of teenage pregnant mothers

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It was observed in the present study that maximum, i.e. 34 (43.5%) spouses of the teenage pregnant mothers had studied up to high school and 25 (32%) had studied up to primary school. Remaining 19 (24.5 %) were illiterate. A majority of the spouses of the teenage pregnant mothers, i.e. 55 (70.5%) were laborers, followed by self-employed 16 (20.5%), agriculturists 4 (5.2%), and businessmen 3 (3.8%).

It was observed that the majority of the teenage pregnant mothers, i.e. 29 (37.1%) were of the birth order of 1, followed by 19 (24.4%) were of birth order of 2. Among the 78 teenage pregnant mothers, 68 (87.2%) were Primi Gravida and 10 (12.8%) were Gravida II. Eighteen teenage pregnant mothers were in the Ist trimester, 36 were in the IInd trimester, and 24 were in the IIIrd trimester. Only two teenage pregnant mothers had complications of pregnancy-one with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and the other had urinary tract infection (UTI).

Out of 78 teenage pregnant mothers, in majority, i.e. 40 (51.3%) of teenage pregnant mothers, the age at marriage, and the age at first pregnancy were 18 years. The youngest age at marriage was 13 years in the present study. The mean age of marriage was 17± 1.5 years. The youngest age at first pregnancy was 15 years in the present study. The mean age at first pregnancy was 17.9 ± 1.0 years.

In the present study, it was observed that there was a significant increase in the mean age at marriage from 16.3 years among illiterates to 17.8 years among those who had studied up to secondary school/ PUC (F-value=7.088, P<0.002). Similarly, the mean age at first pregnancy increased from 17.7 years among illiterates to 18.3 years among those who studied up to PUC. The mean age at first pregnancy increased from 17.7 years in women whose spouses were illiterate to 18.2 years in women whose spouses were high school literate.

The most common reason given for early marriage and early pregnancy was traditional practices among 50 (64%) and family pressure among 45 (57.7%) teenage pregnant mothers, respectively [Table 2].
Table 2: Distribution of study population according to the reason for early marriage and early pregnancy

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Majority, i.e. 49 (63%) teenage pregnant mothers were not aware of any family planning methods either spacing or permanent methods. Only 29 (37%) teenage pregnant mothers were aware of one or more family planning methods and among them, 25 (86%) were aware about oral pills followed by 20 (69%) were aware about condoms, 12 (41%) were aware about IUD/loops, 4 (14%) were aware about emergency contraceptives, and 3 (10%) were aware about injectables among spacing (terminal) methods. About the permanent (terminal) methods, 20 (69%) were aware about tubectomy (laparoscopic or conventional) and only 5 (7.2%) were aware about vasectomy (no Scalpel or conventional). The most common source of information regarding various methods of family planning was television in 14 (48.2%) teenage pregnant mothers and 24 (82.8%) were aware of a place/health facility where they could avail family planning facilities.

Early marriage continues to be the norm in the country, although mean age at marriage has been increasing steadily from 1951 onward both for males and females. As compared to urban areas, the age at marriage is about one and half year lower in rural areas due to traditional belief and social practice of marrying young. [7] In the present study it was observed that the mean age at marriage was 17 years and the mean age at first pregnancy was 17.9 years as compared to other studies where the mean age at marriage and mean age at first pregnancy was 18-19 years. [1],[8],[9]

In the present study, it was observed that as the educational status of the teenage pregnant mothers increased, there was an increase in the age at marriage and age at first pregnancy. This finding was in accordance with the other studies. [7],[10] Average age at marriage for educationally disadvantaged female was 15 years, it was 22 years for women who have completed school. [7]

The most common reason for early marriage and early pregnancy was traditional practices and family pressure in the present study, which were well-established causes as seen in other studies. [7],[10]

To conclude, a majority of teenage pregnant mothers married below the legal age of marriage 18 years. The most common reasons for early marriage and teenage pregnancies were tradition and family pressure. The mean age of marriage increased significantly with an increase of the educational status of the teenage pregnant mothers. The mean age of first pregnancy also increased with an increase of the educational status of both the teenage pregnant mothers and their spouses. A majority of the teenage pregnant mothers were not aware of any family planning methods and among those who were aware, TV was the most common source of information.

This study clearly suggests the need for concerted efforts like advocacy, promoting education of girls and stricter enforcement of minimum legal age of marriage should be promoted so as to raise the age at marriage and consecutively the age of first pregnancy for ensuring the well-being of teenage girls, particularly in rural areas.

 
   References Top

1.Chahande MS, Jadhao AR, Wadhva SK, Ughade S. Study of some epidemiological factors in teenage pregnancy - a hospital based case comparison study. Indian J Community Med 2002;27:106-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
  Medknow Journal  
2.Government of India. National Family Health Survey - 3 Report, Ministry of Health and Family welfare. New Delhi; 2005-2006.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Deshpande RV. Adolescent fertility in Karnataka: An analysis using RHS-RCH data. Indian J Fam Welf 2005;51:1-10.   Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Ananadalakshmy PN, Buckshee K. Teenage pregnancy and its effect on maternal and child health - a hospital experience. Indian J Med Sci 1993;47:8-11.   Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Banarjee B, Pandey GK, Dutt D, Sengupta B, Mondakl M, Deb S. Teenage pregnancy: A socially inflicted hazard. Indian J Community Med 2009;34:227-31.   Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Gupta N, Jain S. Teenage Pregnancy-causes and concerns. J Indian Med Assoc 2008;106:516-9.   Back to cited text no. 6
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7.UNFPA. Adolescents in India; A profile. UN system in India 2003 Dec, p. 25-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Kale KM, Aswar NR, Jogdand GS, Bhawalakar JS. Socio-medical correlates of teenage pregnancy. J Obst Gyn India 1996;46:180-4.   Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Thekkekkara T, Veenu J. Factors associated with teenage pregnancy. Indian J Community Med 2006;31:83.   Back to cited text no. 9
  Medknow Journal  
10.Sheela J, Audinarayana N. Determinants of female age at first marriage in Tamil Nadu - An analysis of NFHS data. Indian J Fam Welf 2000;46:25-32.  Back to cited text no. 10
    



 
 
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