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Year : 1990  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 179-84

Logistics management in Universal Immunisation Programme.


Department of PSM, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi

Correspondence Address:
D Bachani
Department of PSM, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 2133569

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The review of the National Immunization Programme of India in 1989 focused attention to the issue of storage and distribution of vaccines. Cold-chain equipment such as walk-in-coolers (WICs), deep freezers, ice-lined refrigerators (ILRs), and vaccine carriers proliferated after the introduction of the universal immunization program (UIP) but the available units fell short of the official targets in 1988, especially ILRs (7500 proposed and 2876 available) and vaccine carriers (250,000 proposed and 35,500 available). Some states had over 6 months of supplies of vaccines whose management posed problems of losing potency: oral polio virus (OPV) potency was acceptable in 63% of stock in 1988. Syringes, needles, stoves, pressure-cooker sterilizers, dial thermometers, and refrigerator repair kits were in short supply especially at the primary health care (PHC) level. Only 1/3 of subcenters had sterilizers and 58% had vaccines carriers. Logistics management on the state level required provision of vaccines based on previous use and eligible population with even distribution throughout the year. On the district level WICs were needed for every district with 1.5 million inhabitants. Recording of vaccine requirement, utilization, and storage would aid target allocations and avoid wastage. On the institutional and PHC level an ILR and a transporting vehicle was needed. The number of women and children eligible for immunization had to be calculated based on real population figures. Cold-chain capacity of 30,000-40,000 vials was required for a district as well as about 500 reusable syringes and needles a year along with vaccination cards exceeding the number of women and children by 10% for recordkeeping at the PHC center.


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